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Details Report for:
15-2041.02 - Clinical Data Managers

Apply knowledge of health care and database management to analyze clinical data, and to identify and report trends.

Sample of reported job titles: Clinical Data Associate, Clinical Data Management Associate Director (CDM Associate Director), Clinical Data Management Director (CDM Management Director), Clinical Data Management Manager (CDM Manager), Clinical Data Manager, Clinical Informatics Manager, Clinical Research Associate, Data Deliverables Manager, Data Management Manager, Data Management Specialist

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Tasks  |  Technology Skills  |  Tools Used  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Detailed Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Category Task
88   Core
Design and validate clinical databases including designing or testing logic checks.
84   Core
Process clinical data, including receipt, entry, verification, or filing of information.
83   Core
Generate data queries based on validation checks or errors and omissions identified during data entry to resolve identified problems.
82   Core
Develop project-specific data management plans that address areas such as data coding, reporting, or transfer, database locks, and work flow processes.
76   Core
Monitor work productivity or quality to ensure compliance with standard operating procedures.
75   Core
Prepare appropriate formatting to data sets as requested.
74   Core
Design forms for receiving, processing, or tracking data.
74   Core
Prepare data analysis listings and activity, performance, or progress reports.
70   Core
Confer with end users to define or implement clinical system requirements such as data release formats, delivery schedules, and testing protocols.
68   Core
Perform quality control audits to ensure accuracy, completeness, or proper usage of clinical systems and data.
68   Core
Analyze clinical data using appropriate statistical tools.
68   Core
Evaluate processes and technologies, and suggest revisions to increase productivity and efficiency.
66   Core
Develop technical specifications for data management programming and communicate needs to information technology staff.
65   Core
Write work instruction manuals, data capture guidelines, or standard operating procedures.
61   Core
Track the flow of work forms including in-house data flow or electronic forms transfer.
61   Core
Supervise the work of data management project staff.
61   Core
Contribute to the compilation, organization, and production of protocols, clinical study reports, regulatory submissions, or other controlled documentation.
56   Core
Read technical literature and participate in continuing education or professional associations to maintain awareness of current database technology and best practices.
54   Core
Train staff on technical procedures or software program usage.
54   Supplemental
Develop or select specific software programs for various research scenarios.
46   Supplemental
Provide support and information to functional areas such as marketing, clinical monitoring, and medical affairs.

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Technology Skills   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

  • Analytical or scientific software — Electronic data capture EDC software; Oracle Remote Data Capture; SAS Hot technology ; SPSS Hot technology (see all 5 examples)
  • Categorization or classification software — Autocoders; Drug coding software
  • Data base reporting software — Oracle SQL Loader; SAP BusinessObjects Crystal Reports
  • Data base user interface and query software — Microsoft Access Hot technology ; Microsoft SQL Server Hot technology ; Patient tracking software; Phase Forward Clintrial (see all 23 examples)
  • Development environment software — Microsoft Visual Basic Hot technology
  • Enterprise application integration software — Extensible markup language XML Hot technology
  • Graphics or photo imaging software — Microsoft Visio Hot technology
  • Medical software — Allscripts; Epic Systems Hot technology ; MEDITECH software Hot technology
  • Object or component oriented development software — C++ Hot technology ; Oracle Java Hot technology
  • Office suite software — Microsoft Office
  • Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint Hot technology
  • Project management software — Microsoft Project Hot technology
  • Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel Hot technology
  • Word processing software — Microsoft Word

Hot technology Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.

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Tools Used   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

  • Mobile phones — Smartphones
  • Notebook computers — Laptop computers
  • Portable data input terminals — Handheld computers

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Knowledge   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Knowledge
78 
English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
74 
Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
68 
Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
55 
Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
51 
Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
49 
Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
44 
Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
44 
Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
44 
Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
39 
Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
31 
Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
30 
Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
28 
Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
26 
Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
25 
Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
25 
Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
23 
Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
23 
Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
16 
Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
14 
Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
14 
Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
13 
Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
11 
Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
11 
Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
9 
Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
9 
Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
8 
Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
8 
Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
5 
Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
5 
Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
1 
History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
0 
Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
0 
Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.

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Skills   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Skill
75 
Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
72 
Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
72 
Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
72 
Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
69 
Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
66 
Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
66 
Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
63 
Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
63 
Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
60 
Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
60 
Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
56 
Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
56 
Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
56 
Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
53 
Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
53 
Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
50 
Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
50 
Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
47 
Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
44 
Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
44 
Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
44 
Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
38 
Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
38 
Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
35 
Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
28 
Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
22 
Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
22 
Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
22 
Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
19 
Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
19 
Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
16 
Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
0 
Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
0 
Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
0 
Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.

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Abilities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Ability
78 
Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
78 
Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
75 
Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
75 
Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
75 
Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
72 
Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
72 
Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
72 
Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
72 
Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
69 
Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
69 
Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
60 
Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
56 
Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
53 
Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
53 
Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
53 
Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
50 
Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
50 
Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
47 
Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
41 
Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
41 
Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
35 
Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
31 
Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
31 
Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
22 
Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
22 
Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
19 
Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
19 
Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
19 
Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
16 
Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
10 
Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
10 
Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
10 
Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
10 
Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
6 
Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
0 
Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
0 
Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
0 
Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
0 
Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting.
0 
Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
0 
Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
0 
Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
0 
Night Vision — The ability to see under low light conditions.
0 
Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
0 
Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
0 
Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
0 
Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
0 
Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
0 
Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
0 
Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
0 
Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
0 
Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.

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Work Activities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Activity
93 
Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
88 
Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
88 
Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
86 
Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
80 
Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
80 
Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
79 
Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
79 
Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
76 
Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
75 
Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
73 
Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
71 
Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
70 
Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
66 
Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
65 
Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
63 
Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
60 
Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
58 
Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
56 
Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
56 
Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
55 
Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
53 
Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
53 
Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
51 
Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
51 
Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
51 
Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
49 
Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
45 
Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
34 
Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
34 
Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
26 
Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
24 
Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
24 
Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
19 
Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
15 
Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
10 
Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
9 
Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
9 
Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
8 
Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
6 
Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
6 
Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.

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Detailed Work Activities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

  • Evaluate data quality.
  • Create databases to store electronic data.
  • Prepare data for analysis.
  • Analyze data to identify or resolve operational problems.
  • Develop procedures for data management.
  • Monitor operational activities to ensure compliance with regulations or standard operating procedures.
  • Develop procedures for data entry or processing.
  • Prepare analytical reports.
  • Collaborate with others to determine design specifications or details.
  • Analyze health-related data.
  • Evaluate utility of software or hardware technologies.
  • Recommend changes to improve computer or information systems.
  • Communicate project information to others.
  • Document operational procedures.
  • Prepare instruction manuals.
  • Manage documentation to ensure organization or accuracy.
  • Supervise information technology personnel.
  • Update knowledge about emerging industry or technology trends.
  • Train others in computer interface or software use.
  • Design software applications.

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Work Context   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Work Context

Percentage of Top Responses
Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?


100     Every day
Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?


85     Continually or almost continually
15     More than half the time
Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?


50     Every day
50     Once a week or more but not every day
Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?


60     Extremely important
30     Very important
Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?


55     Extremely important
25     Very important
20     Important
Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?


80     Every day
15     Never
Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?


50     Constant contact with others
30     Contact with others most of the time
15     Contact with others about half the time
Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?


45     Extremely important
35     Very important
Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?


45     Every day
30     Once a week or more but not every day
15     Once a month or more but not every week
Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?


35     A lot of freedom
40     Some freedom
25     Limited freedom
Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?


35     Every day
35     Once a week or more but not every day
20     Once a month or more but not every week
Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?


35     Extremely important
40     Very important
15     Not important at all
Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?


15     A lot of freedom
45     Some freedom
35     Limited freedom
Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.


30     More than 40 hours
70     40 hours
Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?


20     Very high responsibility
30     High responsibility
25     Moderate responsibility
20     Limited responsibility
Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?


35     Highly competitive
40     Moderately competitive
Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — What results do your decisions usually have on other people or the image or reputation or financial resources of your employer?


40     Important results
30     Moderate results
15     Minor results
Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?


20     Every day
20     Once a week or more but not every day
15     Once a month or more but not every week
35     Once a year or more but not every month
Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?


15     Moderately close (at arm's length)
70     Slightly close (e.g., shared office)
Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?


25     Continually or almost continually
20     More than half the time
30     Less than half the time
25     Never
Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?


15     Every day
15     Once a week or more but not every day
20     Once a month or more but not every week
40     Once a year or more but not every month
Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?


15     Extremely important
30     Very important
35     Not important at all
Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?


20     Once a week or more but not every day
45     Once a month or more but not every week
30     Once a year or more but not every month
Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?


45     Moderately automated
30     Slightly automated
15     Not at all automated
Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?


37     Once a month or more but not every week
58     Once a year or more but not every month
Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?


21     Continually or almost continually
11     More than half the time
11     Less than half the time
53     Never
Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?


15     Once a month or more but not every week
75     Once a year or more but not every month
Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?


30     Serious
25     Fairly serious
35     Not serious at all
Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?


25     Once a year or more but not every month
50     Never
Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?


25     Limited responsibility
60     No responsibility
Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?


45     Less than half the time
55     Never
Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?


85     Regular (established routine, set schedule)
Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?


30     Less than half the time
70     Never
Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?


15     Once a year or more but not every month
80     Never
In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?


15     Once a year or more but not every month
80     Never
Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?


85     Never
Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?


85     Never
Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)


95     Not important at all
Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?


11     Once a year or more but not every month
89     Never
Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?


90     Never
Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?


90     Never
Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?


95     Never
Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?


95     Never
Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?


95     Never
Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?


95     Never
Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?


95     Never
Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?


100     Never
Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?


100     Never
Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?


100     Never
Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?


100     Never
Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?


100     Never
Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?


100     Never
In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?


100     Never
Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?


100     Never
Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?


100     Never
Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?


100     Never
Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?


100     Never

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Job Zone   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Title Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed
Education Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.
Related Experience A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.
Job Training Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.
Job Zone Examples Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include accountants, sales managers, database administrators, graphic designers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.
SVP Range (7.0 to < 8.0)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
85   Bachelor's degree
5   Associate's degree
5   Post-baccalaureate certificate Help

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Credentials

Find Training Find Certifications

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Interests   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Occupational Interest
Interest
100 
Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
72 
Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
33 
Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
28 
Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
22 
Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
6 
Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.

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Work Styles   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Style
94 
Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
86 
Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
81 
Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
79 
Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
78 
Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
75 
Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
74 
Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
74 
Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
73 
Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
73 
Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
69 
Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
63 
Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
60 
Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
59 
Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
58 
Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
54 
Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.

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Work Values   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Extent
Work Value
56 
Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
56 
Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
50 
Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
50 
Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
47 
Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
39 
Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages data collected from Statisticians.
Employment data collected from Statisticians.
Industry data collected from Statisticians.

Median wages (2015) $38.51 hourly, $80,110 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2014) 30,000 employees
Projected growth (2014-2024) Much faster than average (14% or higher) Much faster than average (14% or higher)
Projected job openings (2014-2024) 15,400
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2014)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2015 wage data external site and 2014-2024 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2014-2024). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

  • Statisticians external site. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition.

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