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Details Report for:
35-2014.00 - Cooks, Restaurant

Prepare, season, and cook dishes such as soups, meats, vegetables, or desserts in restaurants. May order supplies, keep records and accounts, price items on menu, or plan menu.

Sample of reported job titles: Cook, Line Cook, Prep Cook (Preparation Cook), Grill Cook, Fry Cook, Banquet Cook, Breakfast Cook, Prep Cook, Back Line Cook, Pastry Baker

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Tasks  |  Tools & Technology  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Category Task
89   Core Inspect and clean food preparation areas, such as equipment and work surfaces, or serving areas to ensure safe and sanitary food-handling practices.
88   Core Ensure food is stored and cooked at correct temperature by regulating temperature of ovens, broilers, grills, and roasters.
88   Core Ensure freshness of food and ingredients by checking for quality, keeping track of old and new items, and rotating stock.
86   Core Turn or stir foods to ensure even cooking.
86   Core Season and cook food according to recipes or personal judgment and experience.
85   Core Bake, roast, broil, and steam meats, fish, vegetables, and other foods.
85   Core Weigh, measure, and mix ingredients according to recipes or personal judgment, using various kitchen utensils and equipment.
85   Core Portion, arrange, and garnish food, and serve food to waiters or patrons.
84   Core Observe and test foods to determine if they have been cooked sufficiently, using methods such as tasting, smelling, or piercing them with utensils.
83   Core Wash, peel, cut, and seed fruits and vegetables to prepare them for consumption.
76   Core Carve and trim meats such as beef, veal, ham, pork, and lamb for hot or cold service, or for sandwiches.
74   Core Substitute for or assist other cooks during emergencies or rush periods.
76   Supplemental Consult with supervisory staff to plan menus, taking into consideration factors such as costs and special event needs.
75   Supplemental Keep records and accounts.
74   Supplemental Coordinate and supervise work of kitchen staff.
72   Supplemental Prepare relishes and hors d'oeuvres.
72   Supplemental Estimate expected food consumption, requisition or purchase supplies, or procure food from storage.
71   Supplemental Butcher and dress animals, fowl, or shellfish, or cut and bone meat prior to cooking.
71   Supplemental Plan and price menu items.
71   Supplemental Bake breads, rolls, cakes, and pastries.

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Tools & Technology   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Tools used in this occupation:

Commercial use blenders — Blenders
Commercial use broilers — Charbroilers
Commercial use cutlery — Boning knives; Chefs' knives; Paring knives
Commercial use food grinders — Grinders
Commercial use griddles — Griddles
Commercial use grills — Gas grills
Commercial use ovens — Conveyor ovens; Rotating rack ovens; Salamander ovens
Commercial use ranges — Wok ranges
Commercial use rotisseries — Rotisserie ovens
Commercial use smokers or smoke ovens — Smoking cabinets
Commercial use steamers — Food steamers
Cutting machinery — Meat saws
Domestic knives — Cimeter knives; Filet knives; Utility cutlery
Point of sale POS terminal — Point of sale POS computer terminals
Slicing machinery — Meat and cheese slicing machines

Technology used in this occupation:

Compliance software — Food safety labeling systems
Data base user interface and query software — Menu planning software
Inventory management software
Materials requirements planning logistics and supply chain software — Recipe cost control software
Point of sale POS software — Point of sale POS restaurant software

See all 27 T2 categories

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Knowledge   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Knowledge
68   Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
51   Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
47   English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
44   Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
42   Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
42   Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
35   Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
34   Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
26   Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
25   Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
25   Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
24   Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
22   Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
22   Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
20   Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
20   Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
19   Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
19   Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
16   Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
15   Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
15   Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
15   Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
15   Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
15   Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
14   Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
13   Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
13   Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
13   Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
12   Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
11   Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
11   Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
  History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
  Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.

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Skills   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Skill
53   Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
53   Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
50   Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
47   Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
47   Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
47   Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
47   Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
44   Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
44   Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
41   Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
41   Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
41   Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
41   Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
38   Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
35   Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
35   Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
35   Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
35   Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
35   Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
31   Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
31   Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
31   Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
28   Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
28   Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
28   Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
25   Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
19   Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
16   Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
13   Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
10   Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
  Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
  Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
 Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
 Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
 Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.

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Abilities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Ability
56   Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
53   Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
53   Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
53   Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
53   Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
53   Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
50   Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
50   Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
50   Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
50   Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
50   Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
50   Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
47   Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
47   Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
47   Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
44   Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
44   Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
44   Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
41   Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
41   Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
41   Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
41   Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
41   Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
41   Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
41   Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
38   Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
38   Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
38   Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
38   Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
38   Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
38   Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
38   Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
38   Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
35   Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
35   Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
31   Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
31   Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
31   Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
31   Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
31   Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
28   Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
28   Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
28   Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
25   Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
19   Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
13   Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
10   Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
  Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
 Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
 Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting.
 Night Vision — The ability to see under low light conditions.
 Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.

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Work Activities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Activity
64   Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
62   Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
60   Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
59   Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
  • Assess equipment functioning.
59   Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
  • Clean food preparation areas, facilities, or equipment.
  • Mix ingredients.
  • Serve food or beverages.
58   Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
  • Check quality of foods or supplies.
  • Inspect facilities, equipment or supplies to ensure conformance to standards.
57   Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
55   Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
  • Arrange food for serving.
  • Assist chefs or caterers with food or drink preparation.
  • Cook foods.
  • Cut cooked or raw foods.
  • Prepare breads or doughs.
  • Prepare foods for cooking or serving.
55   Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
54   Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
53   Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
53   Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
51   Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
  • Determine prices for menu items.
  • Estimate supplies, ingredients, or staff requirements for food preparation activities.
50   Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
49   Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
49   Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
48   Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
  • Maintain food, beverage, or equipment inventories.
  • Order materials, supplies, or equipment.
46   Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
  • Plan menu options.
45   Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
  • Measure ingredients.
45   Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
44   Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
  • Coordinate activities of food service staff.
43   Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
41   Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
41   Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
40   Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
39   Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
36   Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
34   Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
32   Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
32   Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
32   Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
31   Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
31   Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
30   Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
  • Record operational or production data.
26   Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
23   Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
23   Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
23   Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
22   Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
21   Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
20   Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.

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Work Context   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Context
Work Context
94   Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
91   Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
87   Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
83   Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
78   Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?
77   Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
76   Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?
76   Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?
75   Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
69   Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?
69   Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?
66   Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
62   Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
62   Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?
60   Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — How do the decisions an employee makes impact the results of co-workers, clients or the company?
60   Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?
60   Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
59   Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?
56   Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?
55   Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
52   Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.
52   Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
50   Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
50   Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
46   Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?
44   Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?
41   Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
41   Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?
40   Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
40   Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
36   Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
33   Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
30   Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
28   Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
25   Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?
23   Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?
22   Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
22   Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?
20   Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
19   Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?
18   Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?
18   Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?
16   Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?
13   Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?
13   Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?
12   Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?
10   Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
  Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?
  Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
  Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?
  In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?
  Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?
  Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?
  Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?
  Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?
  Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?
  In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?

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Job Zone   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Title Job Zone Two: Some Preparation Needed
Education These occupations usually require a high school diploma.
Related Experience Some previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is usually needed. For example, a teller would benefit from experience working directly with the public.
Job Training Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few months to one year of working with experienced employees. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.
Job Zone Examples These occupations often involve using your knowledge and skills to help others. Examples include sheet metal workers, forest fire fighters, customer service representatives, physical therapist aides, salespersons (retail), and tellers.
SVP Range (4.0 to < 6.0)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
38   High school diploma or equivalent Help
33   Less than high school diploma
11   Some college, no degree

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Credentials

Find Training Find Certifications Find Licenses Find Apprenticeships

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Interests   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Occupational Interest
Interest
95   Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
50   Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
39   Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
39   Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
22   Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
  Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.

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Work Styles   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Style
80   Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
76   Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
75   Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
74   Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
72   Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
67   Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
66   Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
66   Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
63   Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
63   Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
60   Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
58   Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
58   Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
52   Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
52   Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
49   Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.

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Work Values   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Extent
Work Value
61   Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
56   Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
50   Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
39   Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
39   Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
28   Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

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Related Occupations   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

35-2011.00 Cooks, Fast Food Bright Outlook
35-2012.00 Cooks, Institution and Cafeteria   Bright Outlook Bright Outlook  
35-2015.00 Cooks, Short Order
35-2021.00 Food Preparation Workers Bright Outlook
35-3021.00 Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food Bright Outlook
51-3011.00 Bakers
51-3021.00 Butchers and Meat Cutters
51-3093.00 Food Cooking Machine Operators and Tenders
51-9192.00 Cleaning, Washing, and Metal Pickling Equipment Operators and Tenders
53-7064.00 Packers and Packagers, Hand Bright Outlook

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2013) $10.65 hourly, $22,160 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2012) 1,024,000 employees
Projected growth (2012-2022) Faster than average (15% to 21%) Faster than average (15% to 21%)
Projected job openings (2012-2022) 352,100
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2012)
Accommodation and Food Services (93% employed in this sector)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2013 wage data external site and 2012-2022 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2012-2022). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

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