Astronomers
19-2011.00

Observe, research, and interpret astronomical phenomena to increase basic knowledge or apply such information to practical problems.

Sample of reported job titles: Astronomer, Astrophysicist, Data Scientist, Research Scientist, Scientist

Occupation-Specific Information

Tasks Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceCategoryTask
91
 
Core
Mentor graduate students and junior colleagues.
91
 
Core
Present research findings at scientific conferences and in papers written for scientific journals.
90
 
Core
Collaborate with other astronomers to carry out research projects.
90
 
Core
Analyze research data to determine its significance, using computers.
85
 
Core
Study celestial phenomena, using a variety of ground-based and space-borne telescopes and scientific instruments.
85
 
Core
Supervise students' research on celestial and astronomical phenomena.
82
 
Core
Raise funds for scientific research.
80
 
Core
Teach astronomy or astrophysics.
79
 
Core
Measure radio, infrared, gamma, and x-ray emissions from extraterrestrial sources.
79
 
Core
Develop instrumentation and software for astronomical observation and analysis.
77
 
Core
Review scientific proposals and research papers.
74
 
Core
Develop theories based on personal observations or on observations and theories of other astronomers.
67
 
Core
Calculate orbits and determine sizes, shapes, brightness, and motions of different celestial bodies.
60
 
Core
Serve on professional panels and committees.
54
 
Core
Develop and modify astronomy-related programs for public presentation.
47
 
Supplemental
Conduct question-and-answer presentations on astronomy topics with public audiences.
25
 
Supplemental
Direct the operations of a planetarium.

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Technology Skills Save Table: XLSX CSV

Hot technology
Hot Technologies are requirements most frequently included across all employer job postings.
In demand
In Demand skills are frequently included in employer job postings for this occupation.

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Tools Used Save Table: XLSX CSV

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Occupational Requirements

Work Activities Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceWork Activity
98
 
Working with Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
95
 
Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
93
 
Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
90
 
Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
89
 
Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
88
 
Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
86
 
Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
83
 
Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
81
 
Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
76
 
Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
75
 
Communicating with People Outside the Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
74
 
Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
74
 
Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
72
 
Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
66
 
Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
66
 
Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
61
 
Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
60
 
Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
56
 
Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
54
 
Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
52
 
Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
51
 
Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
46
 
Judging the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
43
 
Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
43
 
Providing Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
40
 
Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
40
 
Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
39
 
Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
38
 
Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
35
 
Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
35
 
Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Materials — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
35
 
Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
34
 
Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
32
 
Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
30
 
Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
30
 
Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
19
 
Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
16
 
Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
16
 
Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
8
 
Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or watercraft.
6
 
Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling materials.

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Detailed Work Activities Save Table: XLSX CSV

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Work Context Save Table: XLSX CSV

  • Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
    • 95%
      95%
       
      responded: Every day
  • Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.
    • 95%
      95%
       
      responded: More than 40 hours
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
    • 95%
      95%
       
      responded: Every day
  • Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
    • 82%
      82%
       
      responded: A lot of freedom
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
    • 73%
      73%
       
      responded: A lot of freedom
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Some freedom
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
    • 73%
      73%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Very important
  • Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
    • 55%
      55%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
  • Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
    • 62%
      62%
       
      responded: Extremely competitive
    • 33%
      33%
       
      responded: Highly competitive
  • Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
    • 50%
      50%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 50%
      50%
       
      responded: More than half the time
  • Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
    • 41%
      41%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Important
  • Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 68%
      68%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
  • Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Constant contact with others
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Contact with others most of the time
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Contact with others about half the time
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Occasional contact with others
  • Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Important
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Fairly important
  • Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 36%
      36%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
    • 36%
      36%
       
      responded: High responsibility
    • 41%
      41%
       
      responded: Moderate responsibility
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Limited responsibility
  • Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 36%
      36%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 59%
      59%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — What results do your decisions usually have on other people or the image or reputation or financial resources of your employer?
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Important results
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Moderate results
    • 36%
      36%
       
      responded: Minor results
  • Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Slightly close (e.g., shared office)
    • 68%
      68%
       
      responded: I work with others but not closely (e.g., private office)
  • Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 64%
      64%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Important
    • 50%
      50%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 52%
      52%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
    • 59%
      59%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Never
  • Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Very serious
    • 50%
      50%
       
      responded: Fairly serious
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Not serious at all
  • Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Important
    • 59%
      59%
       
      responded: Fairly important
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
    • 73%
      73%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Never
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Moderate responsibility
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Limited responsibility
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: No responsibility
  • Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
    • 91%
      91%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
  • Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Moderately automated
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Slightly automated
    • 50%
      50%
       
      responded: Not at all automated
  • Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?
    • 41%
      41%
       
      responded: Irregular (changes with weather conditions, production demands, or contract duration)
    • 59%
      59%
       
      responded: Regular (established routine, set schedule)
  • Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?
    • 50%
      50%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 41%
      41%
       
      responded: Never
  • Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?
    • 59%
      59%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 36%
      36%
       
      responded: Never
  • Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?
    • 36%
      36%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 55%
      55%
       
      responded: Never
  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 59%
      59%
       
      responded: Never
  • In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 59%
      59%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 68%
      68%
       
      responded: Never
  • Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 55%
      55%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 55%
      55%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 64%
      64%
       
      responded: Never
  • Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 64%
      64%
       
      responded: Never
  • Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?
    • 41%
      41%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 59%
      59%
       
      responded: Never
  • Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 73%
      73%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 82%
      82%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 77%
      77%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 82%
      82%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 82%
      82%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?
    • 91%
      91%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 86%
      86%
       
      responded: Never
  • Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
    • 91%
      91%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?
    • 91%
      91%
       
      responded: Never
  • Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
    • 95%
      95%
       
      responded: Never
  • In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?
    • 95%
      95%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?
    • 95%
      95%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never

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Experience Requirements

Job Zone Save Table: XLSX CSV

Title
Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
Education
Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Related Experience
Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Job Training
Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
Job Zone Examples
These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, physician assistants, and veterinarians.
SVP Range
Over 4 years of preparation (8.0 and above)

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Training & Credentials

State training
Local training
Certifications
Apprenticeships
Have a career path or location in mind? Visit Apprenticeship.gov external site to find apprenticeship opportunities near you.

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Worker Requirements

Skills Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceSkill
81
 
Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
81
 
Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
78
 
Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions, or approaches to problems.
75
 
Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
75
 
Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
75
 
Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
75
 
Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
72
 
Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
69
 
Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
63
 
Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
60
 
Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
56
 
Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
53
 
Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
53
 
Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
53
 
Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
53
 
Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
53
 
Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
53
 
Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
50
 
Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
50
 
Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
50
 
Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
44
 
Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
44
 
Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
38
 
Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
31
 
Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
28
 
Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
28
 
Operations Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
28
 
Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
25
 
Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
16
 
Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
16
 
Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
16
 
Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
16
 
Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
16
 
Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
0
 
Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.

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Knowledge Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceKnowledge
100
 
Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
98
 
Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub-atomic structures and processes.
89
 
Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
83
 
English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
67
 
Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
65
 
Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
56
 
Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
44
 
Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
44
 
Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
35
 
Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
30
 
Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
25
 
Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
22
 
Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
21
 
Administrative — Knowledge of administrative and office procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and workplace terminology.
21
 
Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
18
 
Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
16
 
Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
13
 
Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking, and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
13
 
Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
11
 
Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
11
 
History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
11
 
Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
10
 
Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
10
 
Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
9
 
Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
9
 
Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
9
 
Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
7
 
Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
5
 
Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
5
 
Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures, and their history and origins.
4
 
Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
0
 
Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
0
 
Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.

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Education

How much education does a new hire need to perform a job in this occupation? Respondents said:

  • 64%
     
    responded: Post-doctoral training required
  • 27%
     
    responded: Doctoral degree requiredmore info
  • 5%
     
    responded: Bachelor’s degree required

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Worker Characteristics

Abilities Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceAbility
78
 
Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
78
 
Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
78
 
Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
78
 
Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
75
 
Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
75
 
Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
75
 
Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
75
 
Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
75
 
Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
75
 
Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
72
 
Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
69
 
Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
66
 
Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
66
 
Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
66
 
Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem.
66
 
Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
63
 
Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
60
 
Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
56
 
Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
50
 
Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
50
 
Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
47
 
Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
47
 
Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
44
 
Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
35
 
Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
25
 
Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
25
 
Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
25
 
Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
25
 
Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
16
 
Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
16
 
Night Vision — The ability to see under low-light conditions.
13
 
Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
13
 
Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
10
 
Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
10
 
Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
10
 
Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without "giving out" or fatiguing.
3
 
Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
0
 
Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
0
 
Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
0
 
Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
0
 
Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of a glare or bright lighting.
0
 
Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
0
 
Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
0
 
Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
0
 
Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
0
 
Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
0
 
Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
0
 
Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
0
 
Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
0
 
Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
0
 
Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
0
 
Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.

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Interests Save Table: XLSX CSV

Occupational InterestInterest
100
 
Investigative — Work involves studying and researching non-living objects, living organisms, disease or other forms of impairment, or human behavior. Investigative occupations are often associated with physical, life, medical, or social sciences, and can be found in the fields of humanities, mathematics/statistics, information technology, or health care service.
67
 
Artistic — Work involves creating original visual artwork, performances, written works, food, or music for a variety of media, or applying artistic principles to the design of various objects and materials. Artistic occupations are often associated with visual arts, applied arts and design, performing arts, music, creative writing, media, or culinary art.
61
 
Realistic — Work involves designing, building, or repairing of equipment, materials, or structures, engaging in physical activity, or working outdoors. Realistic occupations are often associated with engineering, mechanics and electronics, construction, woodworking, transportation, machine operation, agriculture, animal services, physical or manual labor, athletics, or protective services.
28
 
Conventional — Work involves following procedures and regulations to organize information or data, typically in a business setting. Conventional occupations are often associated with office work, accounting, mathematics/statistics, information technology, finance, or human resources.
28
 
Social — Work involves helping, teaching, advising, assisting, or providing service to others. Social occupations are often associated with social, health care, personal service, teaching/education, or religious activities.
11
 
Enterprising — Work involves managing, negotiating, marketing, or selling, typically in a business setting, or leading or advising people in political and legal situations. Enterprising occupations are often associated with business initiatives, sales, marketing/advertising, finance, management/administration, professional advising, public speaking, politics, or law.

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Work Values Save Table: XLSX CSV

ExtentWork Value
83
 
Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
78
 
Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
78
 
Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
75
 
Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
22
 
Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
22
 
Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

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Work Styles Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceWork Style
98
 
Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
94
 
Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
90
 
Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
90
 
Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
89
 
Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
88
 
Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
86
 
Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
83
 
Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
73
 
Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
71
 
Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.
69
 
Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
67
 
Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
63
 
Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
50
 
Self-Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
42
 
Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
35
 
Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

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Workforce Characteristics

Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2021)
$61.62 hourly, $128,160 annual
State wages
Local wages
Employment (2021)
2,200 employees
Projected growth (2021-2031)
Average (4% to 7%)
Projected job openings (2021-2031)
200
State trends
Top industries (2021)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2021 wage data external site and 2021-2031 employment projections external site. “Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2021-2031). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

State job openings
Local job openings

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

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