Anthropologists and Archeologists
19-3091.00

Study the origin, development, and behavior of human beings. May study the way of life, language, or physical characteristics of people in various parts of the world. May engage in systematic recovery and examination of material evidence, such as tools or pottery remaining from past human cultures, in order to determine the history, customs, and living habits of earlier civilizations.

Sample of reported job titles: American Indian Policy Specialist, Applied Anthropologist, Applied Cultural Anthropologist, Archaeologist, Forensic Anthropologist, Historical Archaeologist, Research Anthropologist, Research Archaeologist, Researcher

Occupation-Specific Information

Tasks Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceCategoryTask
93
 
Core
Collect information and make judgments through observation, interviews, and review of documents.
92
 
Core
Research, survey, or assess sites of past societies and cultures in search of answers to specific research questions.
91
 
Core
Write about and present research findings for a variety of specialized and general audiences.
90
 
Core
Assess archeological sites for resource management, development, or conservation purposes and recommend methods for site protection.
88
 
Core
Collect artifacts made of stone, bone, metal, and other materials, placing them in bags and marking them to show where they were found.
87
 
Core
Study objects and structures recovered by excavation to identify, date, and authenticate them and to interpret their significance.
86
 
Core
Compare findings from one site with archeological data from other sites to find similarities or differences.
85
 
Core
Plan and direct research to characterize and compare the economic, demographic, health care, social, political, linguistic, and religious institutions of distinct cultural groups, communities, and organizations.
81
 
Core
Gather and analyze artifacts and skeletal remains to increase knowledge of ancient cultures.
80
 
Core
Record the exact locations and conditions of artifacts uncovered in diggings or surveys, using drawings and photographs as necessary.
80
 
Core
Consult site reports, existing artifacts, and topographic maps to identify archeological sites.
80
 
Core
Describe artifacts' physical properties or attributes, such as the materials from which artifacts are made and their size, shape, function, and decoration.
78
 
Core
Identify culturally specific beliefs and practices affecting health status and access to services for distinct populations and communities, in collaboration with medical and public health officials.
76
 
Core
Train others in the application of ethnographic research methods to solve problems in organizational effectiveness, communications, technology development, policy making, and program planning.
75
 
Core
Clean, restore, and preserve artifacts.
75
 
Core
Develop and test theories concerning the origin and development of past cultures.
75
 
Core
Create data records for use in describing and analyzing social patterns and processes, using photography, videography, and audio recordings.
75
 
Core
Develop intervention procedures, using techniques such as individual and focus group interviews, consultations, and participant observation of social interaction.
75
 
Core
Advise government agencies, private organizations, and communities regarding proposed programs, plans, and policies and their potential impacts on cultural institutions, organizations, and communities.
72
 
Core
Lead field training sites and train field staff, students, and volunteers in excavation methods.
71
 
Core
Collaborate with economic development planners to decide on the implementation of proposed development policies, plans, and programs based on culturally institutionalized barriers and facilitating circumstances.
68
 
Core
Conduct participatory action research in communities and organizations to assess how work is done and to design work systems, technologies, and environments.
68
 
Core
Organize public exhibits and displays to promote public awareness of diverse and distinctive cultural traditions.
66
 
Core
Formulate general rules that describe and predict the development and behavior of cultures and social institutions.
65
 
Core
Study archival collections of primary historical sources to help explain the origins and development of cultural patterns.
64
 
Core
Apply traditional ecological knowledge and assessments of culturally distinctive land and resource management institutions to assist in the resolution of conflicts over habitat protection and resource enhancement.
63
 
Core
Enhance the cultural sensitivity of elementary and secondary curricula and classroom interactions in collaboration with educators and teachers.
63
 
Core
Participate in forensic activities, such as tooth and bone structure identification, in conjunction with police departments and pathologists.
Not availableNot available
Teach or mentor undergraduate and graduate students in anthropology or archeology.
Not availableNot available
Write grant proposals to obtain funding for research.

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Technology Skills Save Table: XLSX CSV

  • Analytical or scientific software — IBM SPSS Statistics Hot technology ; SAS statistical software; The MathWorks MATLAB Hot technology ; The University of Tennessee FORDISC; 10 more
  • Cloud-based data access and sharing software — Microsoft SharePoint Hot technology
  • Computer aided design CAD software Hot technology — Autodesk AutoCAD Hot technology
  • Data base user interface and query software — Archeological Sites Management Information System ASMIS; Genealogy software; Microsoft Access Hot technology ; Structured query language SQL Hot technology ; 1 more
  • Desktop publishing software — Adobe Systems Adobe InDesign Hot technology ; Adobe Systems Adobe PageMaker
  • Development environment software — Software development tools
  • Document management software — Adobe Systems Adobe Acrobat Hot technology
  • Electronic mail software — Microsoft Outlook Hot technology
  • Geographic information system — ESRI ArcGIS software Hot technology ; ESRI ArcInfo; ESRI ArcView; Geographic information system GIS software Hot technology
  • Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Systems Adobe Illustrator Hot technology ; Adobe Systems Adobe Photoshop Hot technology ; GE Healthcare ImageQuant TL; Graphics software; 1 more
  • Internet browser software — Microsoft Internet Explorer; Web browser software
  • Map creation software — Golden Software Surfer; Leica Geosystems ERDAS IMAGINE; Trimble Pathfinder Office
  • Object or component oriented development software — C++ Hot technology
  • Office suite software — Microsoft Office Hot technology
  • Operating system software — Microsoft Windows Hot technology
  • Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint Hot technology
  • Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel Hot technology
  • Video creation and editing software — Apple Final Cut Express; Apple iMovie; Microsoft Windows Movie Maker; Sony Creative Software Vegas Movie Studio
  • Voice recognition software — Voice activated software
  • Web page creation and editing software — Adobe Systems Adobe Dreamweaver; Facebook Hot technology ; Microsoft FrontPage
  • Word processing software — Microsoft Word Hot technology
Hot technology Hot Technologies are requirements frequently included in employer job postings.

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Tools Used Save Table: XLSX CSV

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Occupational Requirements

Work Activities Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceWork Activity
93
 
Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
93
 
Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
90
 
Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
90
 
Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
88
 
Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
88
 
Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
85
 
Working with Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
82
 
Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
79
 
Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
79
 
Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
76
 
Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
75
 
Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
73
 
Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
71
 
Communicating with People Outside the Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
71
 
Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
66
 
Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
65
 
Judging the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
64
 
Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
62
 
Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
61
 
Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
59
 
Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
58
 
Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
57
 
Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
57
 
Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
56
 
Providing Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
54
 
Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
53
 
Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
51
 
Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
51
 
Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling materials.
49
 
Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
44
 
Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
41
 
Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
37
 
Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
32
 
Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Materials — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
31
 
Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
29
 
Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or watercraft.
29
 
Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
24
 
Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
23
 
Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
16
 
Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
13
 
Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.

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Detailed Work Activities Save Table: XLSX CSV

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Work Context Save Table: XLSX CSV

  • Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
    • 97%
      97%
       
      responded: Every day
  • Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
    • 54%
      54%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 40%
      40%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
  • Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
    • 39%
      39%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
  • Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
    • 43%
      43%
       
      responded: A lot of freedom
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Some freedom
    • 12%
      12%
       
      responded: Limited freedom
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
    • 41%
      41%
       
      responded: A lot of freedom
    • 43%
      43%
       
      responded: Some freedom
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 41%
      41%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Important
  • Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Constant contact with others
    • 47%
      47%
       
      responded: Contact with others most of the time
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Contact with others about half the time
  • Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.
    • 55%
      55%
       
      responded: More than 40 hours
    • 40%
      40%
       
      responded: 40 hours
  • Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 33%
      33%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: Important
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 31%
      31%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 43%
      43%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 30%
      30%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
  • Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Extremely competitive
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Highly competitive
    • 40%
      40%
       
      responded: Moderately competitive
  • Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
    • 44%
      44%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 40%
      40%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
  • Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Very close (near touching)
    • 37%
      37%
       
      responded: Moderately close (at arm's length)
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Slightly close (e.g., shared office)
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: I work with others but not closely (e.g., private office)
  • Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 28%
      28%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 28%
      28%
       
      responded: Important
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: Fairly important
  • Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?
    • 40%
      40%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — What results do your decisions usually have on other people or the image or reputation or financial resources of your employer?
    • 41%
      41%
       
      responded: Important results
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Moderate results
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Minor results
  • Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
    • 30%
      30%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Important
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: Fairly important
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: High responsibility
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Moderate responsibility
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Limited responsibility
  • Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
    • 34%
      34%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: Important
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Fairly important
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
    • 33%
      33%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 22%
      22%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 41%
      41%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: High responsibility
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Moderate responsibility
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Limited responsibility
  • Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 30%
      30%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Never
  • Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?
    • 30%
      30%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 28%
      28%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 44%
      44%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
    • 43%
      43%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 48%
      48%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
  • Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Seasonal (only during certain times of the year)
    • 61%
      61%
       
      responded: Irregular (changes with weather conditions, production demands, or contract duration)
    • 28%
      28%
       
      responded: Regular (established routine, set schedule)
  • Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 46%
      46%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Never
  • Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 36%
      36%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Never
  • Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Very serious
    • 28%
      28%
       
      responded: Serious
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: Fairly serious
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: Not serious at all
  • Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Never
  • In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Never
  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?
    • 22%
      22%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 33%
      33%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 46%
      46%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Never
  • Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 70%
      70%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Never
  • Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 33%
      33%
       
      responded: Never
  • Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 67%
      67%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 43%
      43%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 30%
      30%
       
      responded: Never
  • Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
    • 12%
      12%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 33%
      33%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 37%
      37%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 51%
      51%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 47%
      47%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 28%
      28%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 71%
      71%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 42%
      42%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 44%
      44%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?
    • 37%
      37%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 56%
      56%
       
      responded: Never
  • In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 61%
      61%
       
      responded: Never
  • Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 58%
      58%
       
      responded: Never
  • Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 60%
      60%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 69%
      69%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 71%
      71%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 72%
      72%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 73%
      73%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 71%
      71%
       
      responded: Never
  • Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Slightly automated
    • 80%
      80%
       
      responded: Not at all automated
  • Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
    • 88%
      88%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?
    • 93%
      93%
       
      responded: Never

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Experience Requirements

Job Zone Save Table: XLSX CSV

Title
Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
Education
Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Related Experience
Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Job Training
Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
Job Zone Examples
These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, physician assistants, and veterinarians.
SVP Range
Over 4 years of preparation (8.0 and above)

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Training & Credentials

State training
Local training
Certifications
State licenses
Apprenticeships
Have a career path or location in mind? Visit Apprenticeship.gov external site to find apprenticeship opportunities near you.

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Worker Requirements

Skills Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceSkill
85
 
Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
81
 
Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
78
 
Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
78
 
Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions, or approaches to problems.
78
 
Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
69
 
Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
69
 
Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
66
 
Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
60
 
Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
60
 
Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
60
 
Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
56
 
Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
50
 
Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
50
 
Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
47
 
Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
47
 
Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
47
 
Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
44
 
Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
44
 
Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
41
 
Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
38
 
Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
38
 
Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
28
 
Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
25
 
Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
22
 
Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
22
 
Operations Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
22
 
Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
19
 
Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
16
 
Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
13
 
Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
10
 
Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
3
 
Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
0
 
Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
0
 
Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
0
 
Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.

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Knowledge Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceKnowledge
96
 
Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures, and their history and origins.
92
 
History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
82
 
English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
72
 
Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
64
 
Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
55
 
Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
54
 
Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
50
 
Administrative — Knowledge of administrative and office procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and workplace terminology.
48
 
Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
47
 
Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
47
 
Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
47
 
Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
45
 
Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
45
 
Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
40
 
Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
36
 
Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
35
 
Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
30
 
Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
30
 
Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking, and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
27
 
Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
22
 
Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
22
 
Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
21
 
Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
19
 
Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
18
 
Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
18
 
Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
18
 
Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
17
 
Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
16
 
Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub-atomic structures and processes.
15
 
Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
13
 
Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
12
 
Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
5
 
Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.

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Education

How much education does a new hire need to perform a job in this occupation? Respondents said:

  • 50%
     
    responded: Master’s degree requiredmore info
  • 29%
     
    responded: Doctoral degree requiredmore info
  • 12%
     
    responded: Bachelor’s degree required

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Worker Characteristics

Abilities Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceAbility
88
 
Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
85
 
Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
85
 
Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
81
 
Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
81
 
Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
81
 
Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
75
 
Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
69
 
Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
69
 
Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
69
 
Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
69
 
Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
66
 
Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
63
 
Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
56
 
Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem.
56
 
Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
56
 
Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
50
 
Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
50
 
Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
50
 
Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
47
 
Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
47
 
Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
47
 
Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
47
 
Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
44
 
Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
44
 
Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
41
 
Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
41
 
Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
35
 
Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
31
 
Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without "giving out" or fatiguing.
28
 
Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
28
 
Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
28
 
Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
25
 
Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
25
 
Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
25
 
Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
22
 
Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
22
 
Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
22
 
Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
22
 
Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
19
 
Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
19
 
Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
19
 
Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
16
 
Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
6
 
Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
6
 
Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
3
 
Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of a glare or bright lighting.
3
 
Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
3
 
Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
3
 
Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
3
 
Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
0
 
Night Vision — The ability to see under low-light conditions.
0
 
Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.

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Interests Save Table: XLSX CSV

Occupational InterestInterest
97
 
Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
67
 
Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
50
 
Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
42
 
Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
31
 
Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
22
 
Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.

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Work Values Save Table: XLSX CSV

ExtentWork Value
81
 
Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
75
 
Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
70
 
Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
70
 
Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
61
 
Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
33
 
Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

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Work Styles Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceWork Style
88
 
Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
87
 
Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
87
 
Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
82
 
Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
81
 
Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
80
 
Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
79
 
Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
77
 
Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
75
 
Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
70
 
Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
68
 
Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.
65
 
Self-Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
63
 
Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
62
 
Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
61
 
Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
60
 
Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.

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Workforce Characteristics

Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2021)
$29.76 hourly, $61,910 annual
State wages
Local wages
Employment (2020)
8,500 employees
Projected growth (2020-2030)
Average (5% to 10%)
Projected job openings (2020-2030)
800
State trends
Top industries (2020)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2021 wage data external site and 2020-2030 employment projections external site. “Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2020-2030). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

State job openings
Local job openings

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

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