Librarians and Media Collections Specialists
25-4022.00

The occupation code you requested, 25-4021.00 (Librarians), is no longer in use. In the future, please use 25-4022.00 (Librarians and Media Collections Specialists) instead.

Administer and maintain libraries or collections of information, for public or private access through reference or borrowing. Work in a variety of settings, such as educational institutions, museums, and corporations, and with various types of informational materials, such as books, periodicals, recordings, films, and databases. Tasks may include acquiring, cataloging, and circulating library materials, and user services such as locating and organizing information, providing instruction on how to access information, and setting up and operating a library's media equipment.

Sample of reported job titles: Audio Visual Specialist, Audio Visual Technician, Catalog Librarian, Instructional Technology Specialist, Librarian, Library Media Specialist, Media Technician, Multimedia Services Coordinator, Reference Librarian, Technical Services Librarian

Occupation-Specific Information

Tasks Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceCategoryTask
84
 
Core
Check books in and out of the library.
84
 
Core
Teach library patrons basic computer skills, such as searching computerized databases.
80
 
Core
Review and evaluate materials, using book reviews, catalogs, faculty recommendations, and current holdings to select and order print, audio-visual, and electronic resources.
79
 
Core
Keep up-to-date records of circulation and materials, maintain inventory, and correct cataloging errors.
79
 
Core
Search standard reference materials, including online sources and the Internet, to answer patrons' reference questions.
77
 
Core
Analyze patrons' requests to determine needed information and assist in furnishing or locating that information.
77
 
Core
Supervise daily library operations, budgeting, planning, and personnel activities, such as hiring, training, scheduling, and performance evaluations.
76
 
Core
Plan and teach classes on topics such as information literacy, library instruction, and technology use.
75
 
Core
Confer with colleagues, faculty, and community members and organizations to conduct informational programs, make collection decisions, and determine library services to offer.
72
 
Core
Code, classify, and catalog books, publications, films, audio-visual aids, and other library materials based on subject matter or standard library classification systems.
72
 
Core
Respond to customer complaints, taking action as necessary.
72
 
Core
Explain use of library facilities, resources, equipment, and services and provide information about library policies.
72
 
Core
Plan and deliver client-centered programs and services, such as special services for corporate clients, storytelling for children, newsletters, or programs for special groups.
70
 
Core
Locate unusual or unique information in response to specific requests.
70
 
Core
Troubleshoot problems with audio-visual equipment.
69
 
Core
Develop library policies and procedures.
68
 
Core
Direct and train library staff in duties, such as receiving, shelving, researching, cataloging, and equipment use.
68
 
Core
Evaluate materials to determine outdated or unused items to be discarded.
67
 
Core
Develop, maintain, and troubleshoot information access aids, such as databases, annotated bibliographies, web pages, electronic pathfinders, software programs, and online tutorials.
65
 
Core
Engage in professional development activities, such as taking continuing education classes and attending or participating in conferences, workshops, professional meetings, and associations.
65
 
Core
Compile lists of books, periodicals, articles, and audio-visual materials on particular subjects.
65
 
Core
Confer with teachers to select course materials and to determine which training aids are best suited to particular grade levels.
65
 
Core
Evaluate vendor products and performance, negotiate contracts, and place orders.
63
 
Core
Arrange for interlibrary loans of materials not available in a particular library.
61
 
Core
Represent library or institution on internal and external committees.
58
 
Core
Set up, adjust, and operate audio-visual equipment, such as cameras, film and slide projectors, and recording equipment, for meetings, events, classes, seminars, and video conferences.
54
 
Core
Assemble and arrange display materials.
64
 
Supplemental
Maintain inventory of audio-visual equipment.
Not availableNot available
Maintain hardware and software, including computers, media equipment, scanners, color copiers, and color laser printers.
Not availableNot available
Train faculty and media staff on the use of software and audio-visual equipment.

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Technology Skills Save Table: XLSX CSV

  • Analytical or scientific software — Data visualization software; StataCorp Stata
  • Cloud-based data access and sharing software — Microsoft SharePoint Hot technology
  • Computer aided design CAD software Hot technology — Autodesk AutoCAD Hot technology
  • Data base user interface and query software — Blackboard software; Database software Hot technology ; Microsoft Access Hot technology ; Structured query language SQL Hot technology ; 11 more
  • Desktop publishing software — Adobe Systems Adobe InDesign Hot technology ; Microsoft Publisher; QuarkXPress
  • Development environment software — Adobe Systems Adobe Creative Suite; Standard generalized markup language SGML
  • Document management software — Adobe Systems Adobe Acrobat Hot technology
  • Electronic mail software — Email software; Microsoft Outlook Hot technology
  • Enterprise application integration software — Extensible markup language XML Hot technology
  • Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Systems Adobe Illustrator Hot technology ; Adobe Systems Adobe Photoshop Hot technology ; Graphics software; SmugMug Flickr Hot technology
  • Information retrieval or search software — Classification Web; LexisNexis; Thomson Reuters Westlaw Edge
  • Internet browser software — Web browser software
  • Library software — Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) databases; RCL Software Media Library Manager; Surpass management system software; WorldCat; 13 more
  • Object or component oriented development software — Oracle Java Hot technology
  • Office suite software — Microsoft Office Hot technology
  • Operating system software — Microsoft Windows Hot technology
  • Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint Hot technology
  • Process mapping and design software — Microsoft Visio Hot technology
  • Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel Hot technology
  • Video creation and editing software — Adobe Systems Adobe After Effects Hot technology ; Adobe Systems Adobe Premiere Pro; Apple Final Cut Pro; Apple iMovie
  • Web page creation and editing software — Adobe Systems Adobe Dreamweaver; Blogging software; Facebook Hot technology ; Wiki software; 2 more
  • Web platform development software — Cascading style sheets CSS Hot technology ; Drupal Hot technology ; Hypertext markup language HTML Hot technology ; PHP Hot technology ; 3 more
  • Word processing software — Microsoft Word Hot technology
Hot technology Hot Technologies are requirements frequently included in employer job postings.

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Tools Used Save Table: XLSX CSV

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Occupational Requirements

Work Activities Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceWork Activity
96
 
Working with Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
89
 
Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
86
 
Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
85
 
Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
84
 
Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
78
 
Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
74
 
Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
73
 
Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
72
 
Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
71
 
Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
71
 
Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
70
 
Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
69
 
Communicating with People Outside the Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
69
 
Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
64
 
Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
59
 
Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
57
 
Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
57
 
Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
56
 
Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
55
 
Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
53
 
Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
52
 
Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
52
 
Providing Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
52
 
Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
51
 
Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
51
 
Judging the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
47
 
Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
45
 
Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
45
 
Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
41
 
Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
40
 
Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
36
 
Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
36
 
Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
35
 
Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Materials — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
29
 
Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling materials.
21
 
Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
20
 
Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
18
 
Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
11
 
Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
8
 
Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or watercraft.
8
 
Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.

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Detailed Work Activities Save Table: XLSX CSV

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Work Context Save Table: XLSX CSV

ContextWork Context
96
 
Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
90
 
Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
88
 
Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
84
 
Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
83
 
Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
83
 
Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
81
 
Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
81
 
Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
71
 
Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
70
 
Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?
66
 
Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
63
 
Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
62
 
Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
61
 
Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?
59
 
Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
58
 
Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — What results do your decisions usually have on other people or the image or reputation or financial resources of your employer?
56
 
Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?
50
 
Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
49
 
Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
49
 
Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
47
 
Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
47
 
Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?
45
 
Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
43
 
Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?
42
 
Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?
41
 
Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
36
 
Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
34
 
Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?
34
 
Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?
30
 
Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?
28
 
Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
27
 
Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?
25
 
Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?
24
 
Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?
23
 
Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?
20
 
Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?
20
 
Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?
18
 
In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?
17
 
Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?
14
 
Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
12
 
Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?
12
 
Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
12
 
Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?
11
 
Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?
11
 
Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?
10
 
Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?
10
 
Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?
10
 
Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?
7
 
Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?
6
 
Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
5
 
In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?
2
 
Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?
1
 
Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?
0
 
Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?
0
 
Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?

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Experience Requirements

Job Zone Save Table: XLSX CSV

Title
Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
Education
Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Related Experience
Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Job Training
Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
Job Zone Examples
These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, neurologists, and veterinarians.
SVP Range
Over 4 years of preparation (8.0 and above)

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Training & Credentials

State training
Local training
Certifications
State licenses
Apprenticeships
Have a career path or location in mind? Visit Apprenticeship.gov external site to find apprenticeship opportunities near you.

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Worker Requirements

Skills Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceSkill
70
 
Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
66
 
Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
66
 
Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
63
 
Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions, or approaches to problems.
61
 
Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
56
 
Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
56
 
Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
55
 
Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
55
 
Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
53
 
Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
53
 
Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
53
 
Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
52
 
Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
52
 
Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
50
 
Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
49
 
Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
47
 
Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
45
 
Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
41
 
Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
38
 
Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
36
 
Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
36
 
Operations Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
33
 
Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
31
 
Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
28
 
Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
27
 
Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
25
 
Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
24
 
Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
24
 
Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
22
 
Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
22
 
Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
22
 
Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
19
 
Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
11
 
Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
11
 
Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.

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Knowledge Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceKnowledge
90
 
Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
89
 
English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
82
 
Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
78
 
Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
66
 
Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
63
 
Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
59
 
Administrative — Knowledge of administrative and office procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and workplace terminology.
51
 
Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
48
 
Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
45
 
Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
44
 
Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
41
 
Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
40
 
Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
39
 
Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
38
 
Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
36
 
Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures, and their history and origins.
33
 
Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
31
 
Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking, and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
30
 
History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
30
 
Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
29
 
Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
29
 
Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
21
 
Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
21
 
Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
20
 
Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
15
 
Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
15
 
Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
14
 
Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
14
 
Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub-atomic structures and processes.
10
 
Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
7
 
Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
7
 
Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
4
 
Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.

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Worker Characteristics

Abilities Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceAbility
74
 
Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
72
 
Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
69
 
Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
67
 
Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
66
 
Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
66
 
Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
64
 
Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
64
 
Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
61
 
Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
61
 
Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
58
 
Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
58
 
Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem.
53
 
Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
53
 
Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
53
 
Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
52
 
Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
50
 
Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
49
 
Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
47
 
Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
45
 
Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
42
 
Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
42
 
Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
42
 
Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
42
 
Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
35
 
Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
33
 
Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
31
 
Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
28
 
Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
28
 
Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
28
 
Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
28
 
Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
27
 
Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
24
 
Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without "giving out" or fatiguing.
22
 
Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
17
 
Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
14
 
Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
11
 
Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
11
 
Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
10
 
Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
10
 
Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
10
 
Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
8
 
Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
6
 
Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
6
 
Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
5
 
Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
5
 
Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
3
 
Night Vision — The ability to see under low-light conditions.
3
 
Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
2
 
Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
0
 
Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
0
 
Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of a glare or bright lighting.
0
 
Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.

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Interests Save Table: XLSX CSV

Occupational InterestInterest
86
 
Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
67
 
Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
47
 
Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
39
 
Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
36
 
Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
22
 
Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.

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Work Values Save Table: XLSX CSV

ExtentWork Value
81
 
Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
74
 
Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
70
 
Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
61
 
Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
53
 
Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
45
 
Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

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Work Styles Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceWork Style
86
 
Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
84
 
Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
84
 
Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
81
 
Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
81
 
Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
80
 
Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
80
 
Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
79
 
Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
79
 
Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
77
 
Self-Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
76
 
Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
75
 
Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
74
 
Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
74
 
Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
73
 
Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.
68
 
Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

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Workforce Characteristics

Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2021)
$29.42 hourly, $61,190 annual
State wages
Local wages
Employment (2020)
143,500 employees
Projected growth (2020-2030)
Average (5% to 10%)
Projected job openings (2020-2030)
15,200
State trends
Top industries (2020)
Educational Services (54% employed in this sector)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2021 wage data external site and 2020-2030 employment projections external site. “Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2020-2030). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

State job openings
Local job openings

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More Information

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

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