Umpires, Referees, and Other Sports Officials

Officiate at competitive athletic or sporting events. Detect infractions of rules and decide penalties according to established regulations. Includes all sporting officials, referees, and competition judges.

Sample of reported job titles: Basketball Referee, Diving Judge, Dressage Judge, Football Referee, Horse Show Judge, Major League Baseball Umpire (MLB Umpire), Referee, Soccer Referee, Softball Umpire, Sports Official

Occupation-Specific Information

Tasks Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceCategoryTask
99
 
Core
Officiate at sporting events, games, or competitions, to maintain standards of play and to ensure that game rules are observed.
91
 
Core
Inspect game sites for compliance with regulations or safety requirements.
88
 
Core
Resolve claims of rule infractions or complaints by participants and assess any necessary penalties, according to regulations.
85
 
Core
Signal participants or other officials to make them aware of infractions or to otherwise regulate play or competition.
83
 
Core
Teach and explain the rules and regulations governing a specific sport.
80
 
Core
Inspect sporting equipment or examine participants to ensure compliance with event and safety regulations.
75
 
Core
Report to regulating organizations regarding sporting activities, complaints made, and actions taken or needed, such as fines or other disciplinary actions.
75
 
Core
Confer with other sporting officials, coaches, players, and facility managers to provide information, coordinate activities, and discuss problems.
97
 
Supplemental
Judge performances in sporting competitions to award points, impose scoring penalties, and determine results.
85
 
Supplemental
Verify scoring calculations before competition winners are announced.
82
 
Supplemental
Start races and competitions.
78
 
Supplemental
Compile scores and other athletic records.
78
 
Supplemental
Verify credentials of participants in sporting events, and make other qualifying determinations, such as starting order or handicap number.
75
 
Supplemental
Keep track of event times, including race times and elapsed time during game segments, starting or stopping play when necessary.
75
 
Supplemental
Direct participants to assigned areas, such as starting blocks or penalty areas.
48
 
Supplemental
Research and study players and teams to anticipate issues that might arise in future engagements.

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Technology Skills Save Table: XLSX CSV

Hot technology Hot Technologies are requirements frequently included in employer job postings.

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Tools Used Save Table: XLSX CSV

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Occupational Requirements

Work Activities Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceWork Activity
76
 
Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
75
 
Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
72
 
Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
71
 
Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
71
 
Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
66
 
Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
66
 
Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
62
 
Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
61
 
Judging the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
60
 
Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling materials.
58
 
Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
54
 
Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
54
 
Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
53
 
Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
52
 
Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
49
 
Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
47
 
Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
47
 
Providing Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
44
 
Communicating with People Outside the Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
43
 
Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
43
 
Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Materials — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
42
 
Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
41
 
Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
39
 
Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
38
 
Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
35
 
Working with Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
33
 
Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
33
 
Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
31
 
Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
26
 
Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
26
 
Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
25
 
Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
23
 
Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
23
 
Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
18
 
Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
16
 
Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
10
 
Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or watercraft.
8
 
Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
6
 
Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
5
 
Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
5
 
Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.

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Detailed Work Activities Save Table: XLSX CSV

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Work Context Save Table: XLSX CSV

  • Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
    • 67%
      67%
       
      responded: A lot of freedom
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Some freedom
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Limited freedom
  • Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
    • 57%
      57%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: More than half the time
  • Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
    • 48%
      48%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Important
  • Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
    • 40%
      40%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 30%
      30%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Important
  • Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
    • 43%
      43%
       
      responded: Constant contact with others
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Contact with others most of the time
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Contact with others about half the time
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Occasional contact with others
  • Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?
    • 55%
      55%
       
      responded: Seasonal (only during certain times of the year)
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Irregular (changes with weather conditions, production demands, or contract duration)
  • Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Very close (near touching)
    • 40%
      40%
       
      responded: Moderately close (at arm's length)
  • Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 43%
      43%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Extremely competitive
    • 33%
      33%
       
      responded: Highly competitive
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Moderately competitive
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Slightly competitive
  • Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?
    • 30%
      30%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 20%
      20%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Never
  • Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
    • 48%
      48%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — What results do your decisions usually have on other people or the image or reputation or financial resources of your employer?
    • 48%
      48%
       
      responded: Important results
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Moderate results
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Minor results
  • Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
    • 48%
      48%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Important
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Fairly important
  • Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Never
  • Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Important
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Fairly important
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
    • 33%
      33%
       
      responded: Some freedom
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Limited freedom
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Very little freedom
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: No freedom
  • Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Never
  • Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Fairly important
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: High responsibility
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Moderate responsibility
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: Limited responsibility
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: No responsibility
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: High responsibility
    • 48%
      48%
       
      responded: Limited responsibility
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: No responsibility
  • Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 40%
      40%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Never
  • Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 42%
      42%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 33%
      33%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Never
  • Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
    • 33%
      33%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Never
  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 57%
      57%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 33%
      33%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Never
  • Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 52%
      52%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Never
  • Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Very serious
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Serious
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Fairly serious
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Not serious at all
  • Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 43%
      43%
       
      responded: Never
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 33%
      33%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 33%
      33%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?
    • 33%
      33%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 43%
      43%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 20%
      20%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 50%
      50%
       
      responded: Never
  • Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 48%
      48%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 57%
      57%
       
      responded: Never
  • Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 20%
      20%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 55%
      55%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 57%
      57%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
    • 43%
      43%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 52%
      52%
       
      responded: Never
  • Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.
    • 86%
      86%
       
      responded: Less than 40 hours
  • Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 71%
      71%
       
      responded: Never
  • Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Slightly automated
    • 71%
      71%
       
      responded: Not at all automated
  • Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?
    • 85%
      85%
       
      responded: Never
  • In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 80%
      80%
       
      responded: Never
  • Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Fairly important
    • 79%
      79%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 81%
      81%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?
    • 90%
      90%
       
      responded: Never
  • Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?
    • 90%
      90%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?
    • 95%
      95%
       
      responded: Never
  • In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?
    • 95%
      95%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?
    • 95%
      95%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?
    • 95%
      95%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never

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Experience Requirements

Job Zone Save Table: XLSX CSV

Title
Job Zone Two: Some Preparation Needed
Education
These occupations usually require a high school diploma.
Related Experience
Some previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is usually needed. For example, a teller would benefit from experience working directly with the public.
Job Training
Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few months to one year of working with experienced employees. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.
Job Zone Examples
These occupations often involve using your knowledge and skills to help others. Examples include orderlies, counter and rental clerks, customer service representatives, security guards, upholsterers, and tellers.
SVP Range
3 months to 1 year of preparation (4.0 to < 6.0)

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Training & Credentials

State training
Local training
Certifications
State licenses
Apprenticeships
Have a career path or location in mind? Visit Apprenticeship.gov external site to find apprenticeship opportunities near you.

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Worker Requirements

Skills Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceSkill
66
 
Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
60
 
Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions, or approaches to problems.
56
 
Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
56
 
Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
53
 
Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
50
 
Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
50
 
Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
50
 
Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
50
 
Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
50
 
Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
50
 
Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
47
 
Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
47
 
Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
44
 
Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
44
 
Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
44
 
Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
44
 
Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
38
 
Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
35
 
Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
28
 
Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
25
 
Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
25
 
Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
19
 
Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
19
 
Operations Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
13
 
Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
10
 
Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
10
 
Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
3
 
Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
3
 
Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
3
 
Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
0
 
Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
0
 
Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
0
 
Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
0
 
Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
0
 
Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.

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Knowledge Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceKnowledge
61
 
English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
48
 
Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
46
 
Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
42
 
Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
39
 
Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
34
 
Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
31
 
Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
30
 
Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
28
 
Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
26
 
Administrative — Knowledge of administrative and office procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and workplace terminology.
26
 
Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
24
 
Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
18
 
Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
17
 
Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
16
 
Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
15
 
Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
14
 
Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures, and their history and origins.
13
 
Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
13
 
Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
13
 
Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub-atomic structures and processes.
13
 
Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
12
 
Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
12
 
Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
11
 
Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
11
 
Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking, and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
11
 
Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
8
 
Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
8
 
History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
8
 
Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
7
 
Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
7
 
Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
5
 
Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
5
 
Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.

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Education

How much education does a new hire need to perform a job in this occupation? Respondents said:

  • 43%
     
    responded: High school diploma or equivalent requiredmore info
  • 24%
     
    responded: Less than high school diploma required
  • 14%
     
    responded: Bachelor’s degree required

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Worker Characteristics

Abilities Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceAbility
72
 
Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
72
 
Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
69
 
Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
69
 
Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
66
 
Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem.
66
 
Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
56
 
Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
56
 
Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
53
 
Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
53
 
Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
53
 
Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
53
 
Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
50
 
Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
50
 
Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
50
 
Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
50
 
Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without "giving out" or fatiguing.
50
 
Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
47
 
Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
47
 
Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
47
 
Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
47
 
Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
44
 
Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
44
 
Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
41
 
Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
41
 
Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
38
 
Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
35
 
Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
31
 
Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
28
 
Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
28
 
Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
28
 
Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
28
 
Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
28
 
Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
28
 
Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
28
 
Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
25
 
Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
25
 
Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
25
 
Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
25
 
Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
25
 
Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
22
 
Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
22
 
Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
22
 
Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
22
 
Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
19
 
Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of a glare or bright lighting.
19
 
Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
19
 
Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
16
 
Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
13
 
Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
6
 
Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
0
 
Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
0
 
Night Vision — The ability to see under low-light conditions.

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Interests Save Table: XLSX CSV

Occupational InterestInterest
83
 
Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
83
 
Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
56
 
Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
33
 
Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
11
 
Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
6
 
Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.

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Work Values Save Table: XLSX CSV

ExtentWork Value
78
 
Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
56
 
Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
50
 
Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
45
 
Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
45
 
Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
45
 
Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

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Work Styles Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceWork Style
100
 
Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
94
 
Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
94
 
Self-Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
87
 
Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
87
 
Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.
82
 
Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
81
 
Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
80
 
Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
76
 
Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
74
 
Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
74
 
Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
73
 
Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
64
 
Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
62
 
Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
62
 
Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
36
 
Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.

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Workforce Characteristics

Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2021)
$35,860 annual
State wages
Local wages
Employment (2020)
20,200 employees
Projected growth (2020-2030)
Much faster than average (15% or higher)
Projected job openings (2020-2030)
3,800
State trends
Top industries (2020)
Government (36% employed in this sector)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2021 wage data external site and 2020-2030 employment projections external site. “Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2020-2030). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

State job openings
Local job openings

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