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Summary Report for:
49-2022.00 - Telecommunications Equipment Installers and Repairers, Except Line Installers

Install, set-up, rearrange, or remove switching, distribution, routing, and dialing equipment used in central offices or headends. Service or repair telephone, cable television, Internet, and other communications equipment on customers' property. May install communications equipment or communications wiring in buildings.

The occupation code you requested, 49-2022.05 (Station Installers and Repairers, Telephone), is no longer in use. In the future, please use 49-2022.00 (Telecommunications Equipment Installers and Repairers, Except Line Installers) instead.

Sample of reported job titles: Central Office Technician, Combination Technician, Communications Technician, Customer Service Technician (CST), Field Technician, Install / Repair Technician, Installer, Outside Plant Technician, Service Technician, Telecommunications Technician

View report: Summary  Details  Custom

Tasks  |  Technology Skills  |  Tools Used  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Detailed Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks

  • Note differences in wire and cable colors so that work can be performed correctly.
  • Test circuits and components of malfunctioning telecommunications equipment to isolate sources of malfunctions, using test meters, circuit diagrams, polarity probes, and other hand tools.
  • Test repaired, newly installed, or updated equipment to ensure that it functions properly and conforms to specifications, using test equipment and observation.
  • Drive crew trucks to and from work areas.
  • Inspect equipment on a regular basis to ensure proper functioning.
  • Repair or replace faulty equipment such as defective and damaged telephones, wires, switching system components, and associated equipment.
  • Remove and remake connections to change circuit layouts, following work orders or diagrams.
  • Demonstrate equipment to customers and explain how it is to be used, and respond to any inquiries or complaints.
  • Analyze test readings, computer printouts, and trouble reports to determine equipment repair needs and required repair methods.
  • Adjust or modify equipment to enhance equipment performance or to respond to customer requests.
  • Request support from technical service centers when on-site procedures fail to solve installation or maintenance problems.
  • Remove loose wires and other debris after work is completed.
  • Assemble and install communication equipment such as data and telephone communication lines, wiring, switching equipment, wiring frames, power apparatus, computer systems, and networks.
  • Communicate with bases, using telephones or two-way radios to receive instructions or technical advice, or to report equipment status.
  • Collaborate with other workers to locate and correct malfunctions.
  • Review manufacturer's instructions, manuals, technical specifications, building permits, and ordinances to determine communication equipment requirements and procedures.
  • Test connections to ensure that power supplies are adequate and that communications links function.
  • Climb poles and ladders, use truck-mounted booms, and enter areas such as manholes and cable vaults to install, maintain, or inspect equipment.
  • Refer to manufacturers' manuals to obtain maintenance instructions pertaining to specific malfunctions.
  • Designate cables available for use.
  • Run wires between components and to outside cable systems, connecting them to wires from telephone poles or underground cable accesses.
  • Remove and replace plug-in circuit equipment.
  • Route and connect cables and lines to switches, switchboard equipment, and distributing frames, using wire-wrap guns or soldering irons to connect wires to terminals.
  • Clean and maintain tools, test equipment, and motor vehicles.
  • Program computerized switches and switchboards to provide requested features.
  • Diagnose and correct problems from remote locations, using special switchboards to find the sources of problems.
  • Maintain computer and manual records pertaining to facilities and equipment.
  • Install updated software, and programs that maintain existing software or provide requested features such as time-correlated call routing.
  • Enter codes needed to correct electronic switching system programming.
  • Perform database verifications, using computers.
  • Address special issues or situations, such as illegal or unauthorized use of equipment, or cases of electrical or acoustic shock.
  • Examine telephone transmission facilities to determine requirements for new or additional telephone services.
  • Determine viability of sites through observation, and discuss site locations and construction requirements with customers.
  • Perform routine maintenance on equipment, including adjusting and lubricating components, and painting worn or exposed areas.
  • Measure distances from landmarks to identify exact installation sites for equipment.
  • Clean switches and replace contact points, using vacuum hoses, solvents, and hand tools.
  • Dig holes or trenches as necessary for equipment installation and access.
  • Install telephone station equipment, such as intercommunication systems, transmitters, receivers, relays, and ringers, and related apparatus, such as coin collectors, telephone booths, and switching-key equipment.
  • Provide input into the design and manufacturing of new equipment.

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Technology Skills

  • Analytical or scientific software — Fluke ClearSight Analyzer; Fluke Networks TechAdvisor Field Access System
  • Data base user interface and query software — Data entry software Hot technology
  • Expert system software — Fluke Networks Fluke TechEXPERT
  • Office suite software — Microsoft Office
  • Operating system software — Cisco IOS
  • Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint Hot technology
  • Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel Hot technology
  • Word processing software — Microsoft Word

Hot technology Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.

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Tools Used

  • Adjustable wrenches — Adjustable hand wrenches
  • Cable splicing kits — Cable splicer knives
  • Circuit tester — In-line modular adapters; Polarity testers
  • Circuit tracers — Tone generator kits
  • Diagonal cut pliers — Diagonal-cutting pliers
  • Fiber optic fault locators — Fiberoptic cable testers
  • Flashlight — Penlights
  • GFI circuit testers — Cable fault finders; Receptacle analyzers
  • Hex keys — Hex key sets
  • Insulated scissors — Electricians' scissors
  • Insulated screwdriver — Insulated screwdrivers
  • Ladders — Stepladders
  • Longnose pliers — Longnosed pliers
  • Multimeters — Digital multimeters
  • Network punchdown tool — Battery-powered punchdown tools
  • Nut drivers — Nut wrenches
  • Personal computers
  • Portable data input terminals — Handheld dataloggers
  • Screwdrivers — Double-ended screwstarters
  • Slip joint pliers
  • Stripping tools — T-strippers
  • Tablet computers
  • Tape measures — Double-sided magnetic tape measures
  • Telephone test set — Telephone function test sets
  • Utility knives
  • Voice data video cable tester — Bridge tap detectors; Modem verification units; Pocket toners; Telecom test sets (see all 5 examples)
  • Voltage or current meters — Analog probes
  • Wire cutters
  • Wire or cable cutter — Cable cutters
  • Wire-stripping pliers — Wire strippers

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Knowledge

  • Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
  • Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
  • Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
  • Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
  • Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
  • English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
  • Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
  • Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
  • Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
  • Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.

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Skills

  • Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
  • Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
  • Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
  • Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
  • Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
  • Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
  • Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
  • Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
  • Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
  • Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
  • Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
  • Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
  • Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
  • Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
  • Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
  • Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
  • Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
  • Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
  • Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
  • Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.

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Abilities

  • Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
  • Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
  • Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
  • Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
  • Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
  • Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
  • Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
  • Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
  • Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
  • Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
  • Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
  • Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
  • Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
  • Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
  • Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
  • Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
  • Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
  • Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
  • Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
  • Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
  • Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
  • Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
  • Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
  • Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
  • Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
  • Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
  • Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
  • Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
  • Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
  • Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
  • Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.

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Work Activities

  • Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
  • Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
  • Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
  • Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
  • Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
  • Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
  • Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
  • Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
  • Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
  • Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
  • Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
  • Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
  • Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
  • Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
  • Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
  • Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
  • Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
  • Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
  • Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
  • Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
  • Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
  • Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
  • Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
  • Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
  • Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.

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Detailed Work Activities

  • Gather information about work conditions or locations.
  • Test electrical circuits or components for proper functioning.
  • Test communications equipment to ensure proper functioning.
  • Drive trucks or other vehicles to or at work sites.
  • Inspect telecommunications equipment to identify problems.
  • Repair electronic equipment.
  • Rewire electrical or electronic systems.
  • Adjust equipment to ensure optimal performance.
  • Analyze test or performance data to assess equipment operation.
  • Explain use of products or services.
  • Confer with coworkers to resolve equipment problems.
  • Clean work areas.
  • Install electrical components, equipment, or systems.
  • Install programs onto computer or computer-controlled equipment.
  • Assemble electrical components, subsystems, or systems.
  • Document operational activities.
  • Troubleshoot equipment or systems operation problems.
  • Interpret blueprints, specifications, or diagrams to inform installation, development or operation activities.
  • Climb equipment or structures to access work areas.
  • Determine types of equipment, tools, or materials needed for jobs.
  • Read technical information needed to perform maintenance or repairs.
  • Repair electrical components.
  • Run wiring to connect equipment.
  • Enter codes or other information into computers.
  • Clean equipment, parts, or tools to repair or maintain them in good working order.
  • Maintain work equipment or machinery.
  • Connect electrical components or equipment.
  • Service vehicles to maintain functionality.
  • Lubricate equipment to allow proper functioning.
  • Paint surfaces or equipment.
  • Dig holes or trenches.
  • Advise others on issues related to repairs, installation, or equipment design.

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Work Context

  • In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — 85% responded “Every day.”
  • Telephone — 72% responded “Every day.”
  • Face-to-Face Discussions — 73% responded “Every day.”
  • Contact With Others — 65% responded “Constant contact with others.”
  • Freedom to Make Decisions — 52% responded “A lot of freedom.”
  • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — 58% responded “Continually or almost continually.”
  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — 64% responded “Every day.”
  • Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — 67% responded “Every day.”
  • Deal With External Customers — 53% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Exposed to Contaminants — 49% responded “Every day.”
  • Frequency of Decision Making — 46% responded “Every day.”
  • Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — 48% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work — 51% responded “A lot of freedom.”
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — 46% responded “Very important results.”
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — 45% responded “Very important.”
  • Time Pressure — 32% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Work With Work Group or Team — 44% responded “Extremely important.”
  • Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — 36% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — 32% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
  • Exposed to High Places — 27% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
  • Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — 38% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — 34% responded “Every day.”
  • Spend Time Standing — 30% responded “More than half the time.”
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — 29% responded “High responsibility.”
  • Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — 39% responded “About half the time.”
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — 25% responded “Very high responsibility.”
  • Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — 33% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”
  • Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — 38% responded “Every day.”
  • Electronic Mail — 33% responded “Every day.”
  • Frequency of Conflict Situations — 36% responded “Once a month or more but not every week.”
  • Level of Competition — 36% responded “Highly competitive.”
  • Duration of Typical Work Week — 61% responded “40 hours.”
  • Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — 42% responded “Once a week or more but not every day.”
  • Coordinate or Lead Others — 27% responded “Very important.”
  • Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — 33% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”
  • Physical Proximity — 34% responded “Moderately close (at arm's length).”
  • Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — 38% responded “About half the time.”
  • Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — 29% responded “Once a year or more but not every month.”

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Job Zone

Title Job Zone Three: Medium Preparation Needed
Education Most occupations in this zone require training in vocational schools, related on-the-job experience, or an associate's degree.
Related Experience Previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is required for these occupations. For example, an electrician must have completed three or four years of apprenticeship or several years of vocational training, and often must have passed a licensing exam, in order to perform the job.
Job Training Employees in these occupations usually need one or two years of training involving both on-the-job experience and informal training with experienced workers. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.
Job Zone Examples These occupations usually involve using communication and organizational skills to coordinate, supervise, manage, or train others to accomplish goals. Examples include food service managers, travel guides, electricians, agricultural technicians, barbers, nannies, and medical assistants.
SVP Range (6.0 to < 7.0)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
51   Post-secondary certificate Help
21   Associate's degree
15   High school diploma or equivalent Help

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Credentials

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Interests

Interest code: RIC

  • Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
  • Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
  • Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.

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Work Styles

  • Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
  • Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
  • Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
  • Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
  • Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
  • Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
  • Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
  • Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
  • Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
  • Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
  • Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
  • Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
  • Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
  • Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
  • Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
  • Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

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Work Values

  • Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
  • Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
  • Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2016) $25.79 hourly, $53,640 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2014) 219,000 employees
Projected growth (2014-2024) Decline (-2% or lower) Decline (-2% or lower)
Projected job openings (2014-2024) 19,700
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2014)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2016 wage data external site and 2014-2024 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2014-2024). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

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