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Details Report for:
13-1051.00 - Cost Estimators

Prepare cost estimates for product manufacturing, construction projects, or services to aid management in bidding on or determining price of product or service. May specialize according to particular service performed or type of product manufactured.

Sample of reported job titles: Acquisition Cost Estimator, Construction Estimator, Cost Analyst, Cost and Risk Analysis Manager, Cost Consultant, Cost Engineer, Cost Estimator, Estimator, Estimator Project Manager, Preconstruction Manager

View report: Summary  Details  Custom

Tasks  |  Technology Skills  |  Tools Used  |  Knowledge  |  Skills  |  Abilities  |  Work Activities  |  Detailed Work Activities  |  Work Context  |  Job Zone  |  Education  |  Credentials  |  Interests  |  Work Styles  |  Work Values  |  Related Occupations  |  Wages & Employment  |  Job Openings  |  Additional Information

Tasks   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Category Task
86   Core
Collect historical cost data to estimate costs for current or future products.
85   Core
Consult with clients, vendors, personnel in other departments or construction foremen to discuss and formulate estimates and resolve issues.
83   Core
Prepare estimates used by management for purposes such as planning, organizing, and scheduling work.
83   Core
Analyze blueprints and other documentation to prepare time, cost, materials, and labor estimates.
80   Core
Confer with engineers, architects, owners, contractors and subcontractors on changes and adjustments to cost estimates.
73   Core
Assess cost effectiveness of products, projects or services, tracking actual costs relative to bids as the project develops.
70   Core
Prepare estimates for use in selecting vendors or subcontractors.
69   Core
Set up cost monitoring and reporting systems and procedures.
65   Core
Establish and maintain tendering process, and conduct negotiations.
65   Core
Prepare and maintain a directory of suppliers, contractors and subcontractors.
60   Core
Review material and labor requirements to decide whether it is more cost-effective to produce or purchase components.
58   Core
Conduct special studies to develop and establish standard hour and related cost data or to effect cost reduction.
70   Supplemental
Prepare cost and expenditure statements and other necessary documentation at regular intervals for the duration of the project.
60   Supplemental
Visit site and record information about access, drainage and topography, and availability of services such as water and electricity.

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Technology Skills   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

  • Accounting software — Choice Job Cost; ConEst T&M Billing Manager; Intuit QuickBooks Hot technology ; Sage 50 Accounting Hot technology (see all 6 examples)
  • Analytical or scientific software — ConEst Electrical Formulas; Construction Management Software ProEst; Resources Calculations Incorporated SoftCost; WinEstimator WinEst (see all 6 examples)
  • Computer aided design CAD software Hot technology — Autodesk AutoCAD Hot technology ; ConEst IntelliBid Design Build; ConEst SureCount; Dassault Systemes CATIA Hot technology (see all 6 examples)
  • Customer relationship management CRM software — Microsoft Business Contact Manager
  • Data base reporting software — Oracle Hyperion Hot technology ; SAP BusinessObjects Crystal Reports; Software AG
  • Data base user interface and query software — Assured Software JPP; Microsoft Access Hot technology ; Sage 300 Construction and Real Estate; Xactware Xactimate (see all 5 examples)
  • Document management software — Laserfiche Avante
  • Electronic mail software — Microsoft Outlook Hot technology
  • Enterprise resource planning ERP software Hot technology — Oracle JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Hot technology ; SAP Hot technology
  • Expert system software — EFI Hagen OA
  • Financial analysis software — CPR Visual Estimator; IBM Costimater; PRICE Sytems TruePlanning; Primavera Cost Management (see all 8 examples)
  • Graphics or photo imaging software — Microsoft Visio Hot technology
  • License management software — ConEst Permit Trac
  • Office suite software — Microsoft Office
  • Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint Hot technology
  • Project management software — ConEst JobTrac; Galorath SEER; Microsoft Project Hot technology ; Oracle Primavera Enterprise Project Portfolio Management Hot technology (see all 9 examples)
  • Spreadsheet software — Apple AppleWorks; Corel QuattroPro; IBM Lotus 1-2-3; Microsoft Excel Hot technology
  • Word processing software — Microsoft Word

Hot technology Hot Technology — a technology requirement frequently included in employer job postings.

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Tools Used   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

  • Desktop computers
  • Notebook computers
  • Personal computers
  • Personal digital assistant PDAs or organizers — Personal digital assistants PDA
  • Scanners
  • Tablet computers

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Knowledge   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Knowledge
88 
Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
75 
Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
73 
English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
71 
Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
68 
Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
63 
Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
62 
Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
57 
Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
55 
Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
52 
Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
52 
Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
48 
Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
44 
Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
43 
Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
38 
Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
36 
Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
33 
Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
32 
Clerical — Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
32 
Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
29 
Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
26 
Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
24 
Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
22 
Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
17 
Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
11 
Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
7 
Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
7 
Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
6 
Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
6 
Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
6 
History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
5 
Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
4 
Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
3 
Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.

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Skills   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Skill
75 
Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
72 
Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
72 
Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
69 
Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
69 
Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
69 
Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
63 
Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
56 
Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
56 
Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
56 
Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
56 
Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
53 
Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
53 
Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
53 
Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
53 
Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
50 
Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
50 
Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
50 
Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
47 
Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
47 
Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
44 
Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
41 
Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
38 
Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
38 
Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
22 
Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
19 
Operation Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
19 
Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
13 
Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
13 
Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
3 
Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
0 
Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
0 
Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
0 
Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
0 
Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
0 
Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.

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Abilities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Ability
75 
Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
75 
Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
75 
Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
75 
Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
75 
Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
72 
Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
72 
Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
66 
Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
63 
Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
63 
Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
63 
Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
56 
Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
56 
Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
53 
Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
50 
Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
50 
Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
47 
Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
47 
Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
47 
Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
44 
Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
44 
Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
44 
Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
28 
Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
25 
Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
22 
Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
22 
Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
19 
Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
19 
Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
19 
Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
19 
Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without 'giving out' or fatiguing.
19 
Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
6 
Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
6 
Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
3 
Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
3 
Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
0 
Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
0 
Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
0 
Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
0 
Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
0 
Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting.
0 
Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
0 
Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
0 
Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
0 
Night Vision — The ability to see under low light conditions.
0 
Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
0 
Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
0 
Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
0 
Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
0 
Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
0 
Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
0 
Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
0 
Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.

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Work Activities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Activity
93 
Interacting With Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
90 
Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
88 
Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
83 
Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
82 
Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
81 
Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
79 
Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
76 
Communicating with Persons Outside Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
76 
Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
75 
Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
75 
Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
73 
Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
73 
Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
67 
Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
67 
Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
65 
Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
63 
Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
63 
Provide Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
61 
Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
61 
Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
60 
Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
58 
Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
56 
Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
55 
Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
53 
Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
50 
Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
50 
Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
47 
Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
41 
Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
39 
Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
35 
Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
33 
Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
33 
Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
25 
Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
20 
Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
16 
Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
16 
Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials.
13 
Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.
12 
Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
10 
Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
6 
Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.

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Detailed Work Activities   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

  • Analyze business or financial data.
  • Confer with personnel to coordinate business operations.
  • Estimate costs of goods or services.
  • Confer with others about financial matters.
  • Assess the cost effectiveness of products, projects, or services.
  • Monitor financial indicators.
  • Prepare financial documents.
  • Develop business or financial information systems.
  • Establish business management methods.
  • Maintain data in information systems or databases.
  • Negotiate agreements to resolve disputes.

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Work Context   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Work Context

Percentage of Top Responses
Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?


100     Every day
Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?


68     Every day
32     Once a week or more but not every day
Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?


82     Every day
Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?


59     Every day
41     Once a week or more but not every day
Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?


64     Extremely important
23     Very important
14     Important
Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — What results do your decisions usually have on other people or the image or reputation or financial resources of your employer?


50     Very important results
36     Important results
14     Moderate results
Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?


64     Continually or almost continually
18     More than half the time
14     About half the time
Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?


50     A lot of freedom
32     Some freedom
18     Limited freedom
Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?


55     Constant contact with others
23     Contact with others most of the time
14     Contact with others about half the time
Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?


36     Every day
45     Once a week or more but not every day
18     Once a month or more but not every week
Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?


55     Extremely important
18     Very important
18     Important
Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.


55     More than 40 hours
45     40 hours
Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?


36     Every day
45     Once a week or more but not every day
Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?


27     Extremely competitive
55     Highly competitive
Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?


36     Every day
32     Once a week or more but not every day
14     Once a month or more but not every week
18     Once a year or more but not every month
Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?


18     A lot of freedom
55     Some freedom
23     Limited freedom
Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?


18     Extremely important
41     Very important
27     Important
Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?


41     Extremely important
18     Very important
14     Important
23     Not important at all
Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?


18     Extremely important
41     Very important
18     Important
14     Fairly important
Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?


14     Very high responsibility
29     High responsibility
29     Moderate responsibility
19     Limited responsibility
Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?


14     Extremely serious
14     Very serious
29     Serious
33     Fairly serious
Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?


45     Slightly close (e.g., shared office)
41     I work with others but not closely (e.g., private office)
Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?


27     Once a week or more but not every day
23     Once a month or more but not every week
50     Once a year or more but not every month
Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?


23     Once a week or more but not every day
36     Once a month or more but not every week
32     Once a year or more but not every month
Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?


23     More than half the time
18     About half the time
14     Less than half the time
36     Never
Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?


23     Moderately automated
36     Slightly automated
27     Not at all automated
Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?


18     Moderate responsibility
41     Limited responsibility
27     No responsibility
Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?


27     Once a month or more but not every week
55     Once a year or more but not every month
14     Never
Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?


14     Once a week or more but not every day
18     Once a month or more but not every week
27     Once a year or more but not every month
36     Never
Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?


14     Once a week or more but not every day
36     Once a year or more but not every month
36     Never
Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?


45     Irregular (changes with weather conditions, production demands, or contract duration)
50     Regular (established routine, set schedule)
Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?


14     Once a week or more but not every day
18     Once a month or more but not every week
14     Once a year or more but not every month
50     Never
Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?


23     Once a month or more but not every week
18     Once a year or more but not every month
45     Never
Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?


64     Less than half the time
23     Never
Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?


14     More than half the time
18     Less than half the time
59     Never
Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?


14     Once a month or more but not every week
36     Once a year or more but not every month
41     Never
Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?


14     Once a month or more but not every week
18     Once a year or more but not every month
55     Never
Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?


24     Once a year or more but not every month
57     Never
In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?


27     Once a month or more but not every week
59     Never
Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?


14     Once a month or more but not every week
19     Once a year or more but not every month
62     Never
Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?


32     Less than half the time
59     Never
Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?


64     Less than half the time
36     Never
Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?


32     Once a year or more but not every month
59     Never
Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?


32     Once a year or more but not every month
59     Never
Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?


27     Once a year or more but not every month
64     Never
Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?


27     Less than half the time
64     Never
Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?


36     Less than half the time
59     Never
Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?


18     Once a year or more but not every month
73     Never
Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?


24     Once a year or more but not every month
67     Never
Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)


14     Important
82     Not important at all
Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?


27     Once a year or more but not every month
68     Never
In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?


91     Never
Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?


14     Less than half the time
82     Never
Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?


91     Never
Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?


91     Never
Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?


91     Never
Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?


95     Never

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Job Zone   Save Table (XLS/CSV)

Title Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed
Education Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.
Related Experience A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.
Job Training Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.
Job Zone Examples Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include accountants, sales managers, database administrators, graphic designers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.
SVP Range (7.0 to < 8.0)

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Education


Percentage of Respondents
Education Level Required
64   Bachelor's degree
18   Master's degree
9   Post-secondary certificate Help

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Credentials

Find Training Find Certifications Find Licenses

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Interests   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Occupational Interest
Interest
83 
Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
83 
Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
33 
Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
28 
Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
6 
Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
0 
Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.

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Work Styles   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Importance
Work Style
97 
Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
93 
Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
90 
Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
83 
Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
83 
Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
81 
Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.
80 
Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
79 
Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
76 
Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
73 
Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
72 
Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
68 
Self Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
67 
Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
65 
Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
51 
Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
50 
Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.

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Work Values   Save Table (XLS/CSV)


Extent
Work Value
61 
Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
61 
Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
58 
Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
50 
Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
50 
Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
45 
Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

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Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2016) $29.71 hourly, $61,790 annual
State wages Local Salary Info
 
Employment (2014) 214,000 employees
Projected growth (2014-2024) Faster than average (9% to 13%) Faster than average (9% to 13%)
Projected job openings (2014-2024) 79,500
State trends Employment Trends
 
Top industries (2014)
Construction (61% employed in this sector)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2016 wage data external site and 2014-2024 employment projections external site. "Projected growth" represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2014-2024). "Projected job openings" represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

  • Cost estimators external site. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition.

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