Surveyors
17-1022.00

Make exact measurements and determine property boundaries. Provide data relevant to the shape, contour, gravitation, location, elevation, or dimension of land or land features on or near the earth's surface for engineering, mapmaking, mining, land evaluation, construction, and other purposes.

Sample of reported job titles: City Surveyor, County Surveyor, Land Surveyor, Mine Surveyor, Registered Land Surveyor, Surveyor

Also see: Geodetic Surveyors

Occupation-Specific Information

Tasks Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceCategoryTask
93
 
Core
Verify the accuracy of survey data, including measurements and calculations conducted at survey sites.
91
 
Core
Direct or conduct surveys to establish legal boundaries for properties, based on legal deeds and titles.
90
 
Core
Prepare, or supervise preparation of, all data, charts, plots, maps, records, and documents related to surveys.
87
 
Core
Prepare and maintain sketches, maps, reports, and legal descriptions of surveys to describe, certify, and assume liability for work performed.
86
 
Core
Write descriptions of property boundary surveys for use in deeds, leases, or other legal documents.
86
 
Core
Search legal records, survey records, and land titles to obtain information about property boundaries in areas to be surveyed.
83
 
Core
Coordinate findings with the work of engineering and architectural personnel, clients, and others concerned with projects.
82
 
Core
Establish fixed points for use in making maps, using geodetic and engineering instruments.
82
 
Core
Calculate heights, depths, relative positions, property lines, and other characteristics of terrain.
81
 
Core
Adjust surveying instruments to maintain their accuracy.
80
 
Core
Train assistants and helpers, and direct their work in such activities as performing surveys or drafting maps.
80
 
Core
Record the results of surveys, including the shape, contour, location, elevation, and dimensions of land or land features.
78
 
Core
Determine longitudes and latitudes of important features and boundaries in survey areas, using theodolites, transits, levels, and satellite-based global positioning systems (GPS).
78
 
Core
Compute geodetic measurements and interpret survey data to determine positions, shapes, and elevations of geomorphic and topographic features.
77
 
Core
Analyze survey objectives and specifications to prepare survey proposals or to direct others in survey proposal preparation.
76
 
Core
Testify as an expert witness in court cases on land survey issues, such as property boundaries.
75
 
Core
Plan and conduct ground surveys designed to establish baselines, elevations, and other geodetic measurements.
75
 
Core
Develop criteria for survey methods and procedures.
66
 
Core
Survey bodies of water to determine navigable channels and to secure data for construction of breakwaters, piers, and other marine structures.
61
 
Core
Direct aerial surveys of specified geographical areas.
61
 
Core
Conduct research in surveying and mapping methods, using knowledge of photogrammetric map compilation and electronic data processing.
47
 
Supplemental
Determine specifications for equipment to be used for aerial photography, as well as altitudes from which to photograph terrain.
43
 
Supplemental
Develop criteria for the design and modification of survey instruments.
38
 
Supplemental
Locate and mark sites selected for geophysical prospecting activities, such as efforts to locate petroleum or other mineral products.

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Technology Skills Save Table: XLSX CSV

Hot technology Hot Technologies are requirements frequently included in employer job postings.

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Tools Used Save Table: XLSX CSV

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Occupational Requirements

Work Activities Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceWork Activity
90
 
Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
86
 
Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
86
 
Working with Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
84
 
Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
83
 
Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
81
 
Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
80
 
Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
77
 
Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
76
 
Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
75
 
Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
72
 
Communicating with People Outside the Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
72
 
Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
72
 
Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
71
 
Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling materials.
69
 
Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
69
 
Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
69
 
Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
69
 
Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
69
 
Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
68
 
Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
67
 
Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
66
 
Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
61
 
Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or watercraft.
60
 
Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
60
 
Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
59
 
Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Materials — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
59
 
Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
58
 
Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
58
 
Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
57
 
Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
57
 
Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
56
 
Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
56
 
Providing Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
55
 
Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
53
 
Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
52
 
Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
49
 
Judging the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
49
 
Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
43
 
Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
32
 
Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
24
 
Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.

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Detailed Work Activities Save Table: XLSX CSV

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Work Context Save Table: XLSX CSV

  • Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
    • 94%
      94%
       
      responded: Every day
  • Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
    • 90%
      90%
       
      responded: Every day
  • Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
    • 81%
      81%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
    • 68%
      68%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Very important
  • Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?
    • 61%
      61%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
  • Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
    • 39%
      39%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 48%
      48%
       
      responded: Very important
  • In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?
    • 58%
      58%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
  • Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
    • 39%
      39%
       
      responded: A lot of freedom
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Some freedom
  • Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Constant contact with others
    • 42%
      42%
       
      responded: Contact with others most of the time
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Contact with others about half the time
  • Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
    • 42%
      42%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
  • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
    • 33%
      33%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 43%
      43%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 20%
      20%
       
      responded: About half the time
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — What results do your decisions usually have on other people or the image or reputation or financial resources of your employer?
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Very important results
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Important results
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Moderate results
  • Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 61%
      61%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
  • Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?
    • 20%
      20%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 53%
      53%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
  • Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 53%
      53%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
  • Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?
    • 42%
      42%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Never
  • Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 55%
      55%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Important
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Very high responsibility
    • 48%
      48%
       
      responded: High responsibility
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Moderate responsibility
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Limited responsibility
  • Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.
    • 34%
      34%
       
      responded: More than 40 hours
    • 62%
      62%
       
      responded: 40 hours
  • Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Very high responsibility
    • 55%
      55%
       
      responded: High responsibility
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Moderate responsibility
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Limited responsibility
  • Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 39%
      39%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 42%
      42%
       
      responded: About half the time
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
    • 55%
      55%
       
      responded: Some freedom
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Limited freedom
  • Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
  • Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Important
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 39%
      39%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Extremely serious
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Very serious
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Serious
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Fairly serious
  • Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Important
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Fairly important
  • Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?
    • 39%
      39%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
  • Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Highly competitive
    • 55%
      55%
       
      responded: Moderately competitive
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Slightly competitive
  • Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Never
  • Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 58%
      58%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Moderately close (at arm's length)
    • 52%
      52%
       
      responded: Slightly close (e.g., shared office)
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: I work with others but not closely (e.g., private office)
  • Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?
    • 52%
      52%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Highly automated
    • 42%
      42%
       
      responded: Moderately automated
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: Slightly automated
  • Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 42%
      42%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
  • Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 48%
      48%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 53%
      53%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
  • Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 55%
      55%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
  • Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 39%
      39%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 58%
      58%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Never
  • Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 52%
      52%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Never
  • Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 39%
      39%
       
      responded: Never
  • In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 42%
      42%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?
    • 71%
      71%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Never
  • Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Irregular (changes with weather conditions, production demands, or contract duration)
    • 55%
      55%
       
      responded: Regular (established routine, set schedule)
  • Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 42%
      42%
       
      responded: Never
  • Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
    • 48%
      48%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 39%
      39%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?
    • 40%
      40%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 47%
      47%
       
      responded: Never
  • Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Fairly important
    • 65%
      65%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?
    • 39%
      39%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 61%
      61%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?
    • 20%
      20%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 73%
      73%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 77%
      77%
       
      responded: Never

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Experience Requirements

Job Zone Save Table: XLSX CSV

Title
Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed
Education
Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.
Related Experience
A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.
Job Training
Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.
Job Zone Examples
Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include real estate brokers, sales managers, database administrators, graphic designers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.
SVP Range
2-4 years of preparation (7.0 to < 8.0)

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Training & Credentials

State training
Local training
Certifications
State licenses
Apprenticeships
Have a career path or location in mind? Visit Apprenticeship.gov external site to find apprenticeship opportunities near you.

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Worker Requirements

Skills Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceSkill
75
 
Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
72
 
Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions, or approaches to problems.
72
 
Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
72
 
Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
69
 
Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
66
 
Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
63
 
Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
63
 
Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
56
 
Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
56
 
Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
56
 
Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
53
 
Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
53
 
Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
50
 
Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
50
 
Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
50
 
Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
47
 
Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
47
 
Operations Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
47
 
Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
44
 
Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
44
 
Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
44
 
Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
44
 
Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
44
 
Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
44
 
Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
28
 
Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
28
 
Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
28
 
Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
25
 
Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
25
 
Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
25
 
Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
22
 
Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
22
 
Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
19
 
Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
0
 
Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.

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Knowledge Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceKnowledge
89
 
Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
75
 
Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
71
 
Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
71
 
English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
71
 
Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
70
 
Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
69
 
Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
67
 
Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
65
 
Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
63
 
Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
53
 
Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
51
 
Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
50
 
Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
49
 
Administrative — Knowledge of administrative and office procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and workplace terminology.
48
 
Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
47
 
Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
44
 
History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
43
 
Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking, and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
40
 
Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
39
 
Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
38
 
Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub-atomic structures and processes.
36
 
Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
32
 
Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
24
 
Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
24
 
Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
20
 
Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
15
 
Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
14
 
Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
14
 
Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
13
 
Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
12
 
Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures, and their history and origins.
8
 
Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
6
 
Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.

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Education

How much education does a new hire need to perform a job in this occupation? Respondents said:

  • 42%
     
    responded: Bachelor’s degree required
  • 32%
     
    responded: Associate’s degree required
  • 16%
     
    responded: High school diploma or equivalent requiredmore info

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Worker Characteristics

Abilities Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceAbility
75
 
Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
75
 
Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
75
 
Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
72
 
Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
72
 
Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
72
 
Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
72
 
Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
72
 
Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
69
 
Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
69
 
Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem.
69
 
Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
66
 
Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
63
 
Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
56
 
Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
56
 
Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
56
 
Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
56
 
Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
53
 
Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
53
 
Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
53
 
Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
50
 
Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
50
 
Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
50
 
Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
50
 
Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
50
 
Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
50
 
Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
47
 
Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
47
 
Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
47
 
Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
47
 
Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
47
 
Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
47
 
Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
44
 
Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
41
 
Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
38
 
Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without "giving out" or fatiguing.
35
 
Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
31
 
Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
31
 
Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
31
 
Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
28
 
Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of a glare or bright lighting.
25
 
Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
25
 
Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
25
 
Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
25
 
Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
22
 
Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
22
 
Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
22
 
Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
19
 
Night Vision — The ability to see under low-light conditions.
19
 
Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
19
 
Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
13
 
Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
0
 
Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.

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Interests Save Table: XLSX CSV

Occupational InterestInterest
95
 
Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
67
 
Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
67
 
Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
39
 
Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
17
 
Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
6
 
Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.

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Work Values Save Table: XLSX CSV

ExtentWork Value
72
 
Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
67
 
Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
50
 
Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
50
 
Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
50
 
Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
45
 
Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

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Work Styles Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceWork Style
94
 
Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
93
 
Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
88
 
Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
87
 
Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
77
 
Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
74
 
Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
73
 
Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
73
 
Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
73
 
Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
71
 
Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
70
 
Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.
69
 
Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
69
 
Self-Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
58
 
Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
57
 
Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
49
 
Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

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Workforce Characteristics

Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2021)
$29.62 hourly, $61,600 annual
State wages
Local wages
Employment (2020)
46,000 employees
Projected growth (2020-2030)
Slower than average (1% to 5%)
Projected job openings (2020-2030)
4,000
State trends
Top industries (2020)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2021 wage data external site and 2020-2030 employment projections external site. “Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2020-2030). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

State job openings
Local job openings

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More Information

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

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