Speech-Language Pathologists

Assess and treat persons with speech, language, voice, and fluency disorders. May select alternative communication systems and teach their use. May perform research related to speech and language problems.

Sample of reported job titles: Bilingual Speech-Language Pathologist (Bilingual SLP), Pediatric Speech-Language Pathologist (Pediatric SLP), Speech and Language Clinician, Speech and Language Specialist, Speech and Language Teacher, Speech and Language Therapist, Speech Clinician, Speech Pathologist, Speech Therapist, Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP)

Occupation-Specific Information

Tasks Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceCategoryTask
97
 
Core
Evaluate hearing or speech and language test results, barium swallow results, or medical or background information to diagnose and plan treatment for speech, language, fluency, voice, or swallowing disorders.
97
 
Core
Write reports and maintain proper documentation of information, such as client Medicaid or billing records or caseload activities, including the initial evaluation, treatment, progress, and discharge of clients.
96
 
Core
Monitor patients' progress and adjust treatments accordingly.
96
 
Core
Develop or implement treatment plans for problems such as stuttering, delayed language, swallowing disorders, or inappropriate pitch or harsh voice problems, based on own assessments and recommendations of physicians, psychologists, or social workers.
95
 
Core
Administer hearing or speech and language evaluations, tests, or examinations to patients to collect information on type and degree of impairments, using written or oral tests or special instruments.
92
 
Core
Educate patients and family members about various topics, such as communication techniques or strategies to cope with or to avoid personal misunderstandings.
91
 
Core
Supervise or collaborate with therapy team.
91
 
Core
Participate in and write reports for meetings regarding patients' progress, such as individualized educational planning (IEP) meetings, in-service meetings, or intervention assistance team meetings.
87
 
Core
Teach clients to control or strengthen tongue, jaw, face muscles, or breathing mechanisms.
87
 
Core
Instruct clients in techniques for more effective communication, such as sign language, lip reading, or voice improvement.
86
 
Core
Consult with and advise educators or medical staff on speech or hearing topics, such as communication strategies or speech and language stimulation.
86
 
Core
Develop speech exercise programs to reduce disabilities.
83
 
Core
Complete administrative responsibilities, such as coordinating paperwork, scheduling case management activities, or writing lesson plans.
80
 
Core
Consult with and refer clients to additional medical or educational services.
78
 
Core
Design, develop, or employ alternative diagnostic or communication devices or strategies.
76
 
Core
Participate in conferences, training, continuing education courses, or publish research results to share knowledge of new hearing or speech disorder treatment methods or technologies.
66
 
Core
Use computer applications to identify or assist with communication disabilities.
84
 
Supplemental
Develop individual or group activities or programs in schools to deal with behavior, speech, language, or swallowing problems.
77
 
Supplemental
Conduct lessons or direct educational or therapeutic games to assist teachers dealing with speech problems.
77
 
Supplemental
Provide communication instruction to dialect speakers or students with limited English proficiency.
71
 
Supplemental
Supervise students or assistants.
69
 
Supplemental
Communicate with non-speaking students, using sign language or computer technology.
68
 
Supplemental
Evaluate oral motor function in infants.
60
 
Supplemental
Conduct or direct research on speech or hearing topics and report findings for use in developing procedures, technologies, or treatments.

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Technology Skills Save Table: XLSX CSV

Hot technology
Hot Technologies are requirements most frequently included across all employer job postings.

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Tools Used Save Table: XLSX CSV

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Occupational Requirements

Work Activities Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceWork Activity
99
 
Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
95
 
Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
92
 
Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
90
 
Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
90
 
Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
87
 
Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
86
 
Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
83
 
Working with Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
82
 
Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
81
 
Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
81
 
Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
80
 
Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
79
 
Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
76
 
Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
76
 
Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
72
 
Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
69
 
Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
69
 
Judging the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
69
 
Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
69
 
Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
67
 
Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
65
 
Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
65
 
Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
55
 
Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
51
 
Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
51
 
Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
44
 
Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Materials — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
43
 
Providing Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
39
 
Communicating with People Outside the Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
34
 
Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling materials.
32
 
Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
32
 
Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
29
 
Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
22
 
Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
11
 
Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
9
 
Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
6
 
Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
4
 
Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
4
 
Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or watercraft.
4
 
Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
2
 
Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.

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Detailed Work Activities Save Table: XLSX CSV

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Work Context Save Table: XLSX CSV

  • Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
    • 99%
      99%
       
      responded: Constant contact with others
  • Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Every day
  • Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
    • 90%
      90%
       
      responded: Extremely important
  • Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?
    • 80%
      80%
       
      responded: Very close (near touching)
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Moderately close (at arm's length)
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
    • 72%
      72%
       
      responded: A lot of freedom
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Some freedom
  • Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
    • 61%
      61%
       
      responded: A lot of freedom
    • 39%
      39%
       
      responded: Some freedom
  • Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?
    • 59%
      59%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 40%
      40%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
  • Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
    • 63%
      63%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
  • Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
    • 63%
      63%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
    • 79%
      79%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 20%
      20%
       
      responded: Never
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — What results do your decisions usually have on other people or the image or reputation or financial resources of your employer?
    • 43%
      43%
       
      responded: Very important results
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Important results
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Moderate results
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
    • 46%
      46%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Fairly important
  • Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
  • Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 39%
      39%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: Important
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 51%
      51%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
    • 30%
      30%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 36%
      36%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Important
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?
    • 41%
      41%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 22%
      22%
       
      responded: Never
  • Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?
    • 33%
      33%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 28%
      28%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 36%
      36%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: Extremely serious
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Very serious
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: Fairly serious
    • 20%
      20%
       
      responded: Not serious at all
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?
    • 20%
      20%
       
      responded: Very high responsibility
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: High responsibility
    • 44%
      44%
       
      responded: Limited responsibility
  • Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 31%
      31%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 39%
      39%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 28%
      28%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 12%
      12%
       
      responded: Never
  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?
    • 22%
      22%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 40%
      40%
       
      responded: Never
  • Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Highly competitive
    • 30%
      30%
       
      responded: Moderately competitive
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: Slightly competitive
    • 20%
      20%
       
      responded: Not at all competitive
  • Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 47%
      47%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
  • Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 31%
      31%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 52%
      52%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 30%
      30%
       
      responded: Important
    • 22%
      22%
       
      responded: Fairly important
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: High responsibility
    • 28%
      28%
       
      responded: Moderate responsibility
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Limited responsibility
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: No responsibility
  • Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.
    • 20%
      20%
       
      responded: More than 40 hours
    • 37%
      37%
       
      responded: 40 hours
    • 43%
      43%
       
      responded: Less than 40 hours
  • Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 62%
      62%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
  • Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 28%
      28%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 44%
      44%
       
      responded: Never
  • Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 71%
      71%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?
    • 46%
      46%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 36%
      36%
       
      responded: Never
  • Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 40%
      40%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?
    • 60%
      60%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 40%
      40%
       
      responded: Never
  • Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 73%
      73%
       
      responded: Never
  • Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?
    • 37%
      37%
       
      responded: Slightly automated
    • 53%
      53%
       
      responded: Not at all automated
  • Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 79%
      79%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?
    • 55%
      55%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 44%
      44%
       
      responded: Never
  • Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Important
    • 72%
      72%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?
    • 82%
      82%
       
      responded: Never
  • Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?
    • 82%
      82%
       
      responded: Never
  • Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 74%
      74%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?
    • 90%
      90%
       
      responded: Never
  • Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?
    • 91%
      91%
       
      responded: Regular (established routine, set schedule)
  • Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?
    • 90%
      90%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 89%
      89%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 87%
      87%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never

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Experience Requirements

Job Zone Save Table: XLSX CSV

Title
Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
Education
Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Related Experience
Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Job Training
Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
Job Zone Examples
These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, physician assistants, and veterinarians.
SVP Range
Over 4 years of preparation (8.0 and above)

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Training & Credentials

State training
Local training
Certifications
State licenses
Apprenticeships
Have a career path or location in mind? Visit Apprenticeship.gov external site to find apprenticeship opportunities near you.

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Worker Requirements

Skills Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceSkill
78
 
Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
78
 
Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions, or approaches to problems.
78
 
Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
78
 
Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
75
 
Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
75
 
Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
75
 
Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
72
 
Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
72
 
Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
72
 
Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
72
 
Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
69
 
Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
69
 
Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
56
 
Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
56
 
Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
53
 
Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
53
 
Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
50
 
Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
47
 
Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
47
 
Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
47
 
Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
35
 
Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
31
 
Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
28
 
Operations Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
25
 
Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
22
 
Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
16
 
Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
16
 
Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
16
 
Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
13
 
Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
3
 
Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
0
 
Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
0
 
Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
0
 
Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
0
 
Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.

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Knowledge Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceKnowledge
97
 
English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
79
 
Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
76
 
Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
76
 
Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
74
 
Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
64
 
Administrative — Knowledge of administrative and office procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and workplace terminology.
56
 
Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures, and their history and origins.
54
 
Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
50
 
Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
48
 
Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
45
 
Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
40
 
Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
39
 
Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
39
 
Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
35
 
Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
28
 
Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
23
 
Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
23
 
Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
21
 
Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
18
 
Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
14
 
Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking, and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
12
 
Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
10
 
Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
10
 
Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub-atomic structures and processes.
10
 
Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
9
 
Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
8
 
History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
8
 
Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
7
 
Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
6
 
Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
6
 
Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
4
 
Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
0
 
Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.

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Education

How much education does a new hire need to perform a job in this occupation? Respondents said:

  • 89%
     
    responded: Master’s degree requiredmore info
  • 11%
     
    responded: Post-master’s certificate required

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Worker Characteristics

Abilities Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceAbility
88
 
Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
81
 
Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
81
 
Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
81
 
Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
78
 
Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
78
 
Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
75
 
Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
75
 
Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
75
 
Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem.
69
 
Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
69
 
Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
69
 
Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
66
 
Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
66
 
Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
56
 
Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
56
 
Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
53
 
Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
53
 
Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
53
 
Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
50
 
Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
47
 
Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
44
 
Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
44
 
Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
38
 
Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
38
 
Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
35
 
Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
28
 
Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
25
 
Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
25
 
Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without "giving out" or fatiguing.
25
 
Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
22
 
Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
16
 
Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
10
 
Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
10
 
Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
10
 
Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
6
 
Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
3
 
Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
3
 
Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
3
 
Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
3
 
Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
0
 
Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
0
 
Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
0
 
Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
0
 
Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of a glare or bright lighting.
0
 
Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
0
 
Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
0
 
Night Vision — The ability to see under low-light conditions.
0
 
Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
0
 
Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
0
 
Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
0
 
Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
0
 
Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.

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Interests Save Table: XLSX CSV

Occupational InterestInterest
95
 
Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
83
 
Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
56
 
Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
22
 
Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
17
 
Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
11
 
Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.

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Work Values Save Table: XLSX CSV

ExtentWork Value
95
 
Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
78
 
Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
72
 
Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
70
 
Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
61
 
Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
50
 
Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

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Work Styles Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceWork Style
97
 
Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
96
 
Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
95
 
Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
95
 
Self-Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
94
 
Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
92
 
Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
88
 
Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.
87
 
Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
86
 
Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.
85
 
Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
85
 
Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
82
 
Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
81
 
Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
79
 
Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
74
 
Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
73
 
Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.

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Workforce Characteristics

Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2021)
$38.01 hourly, $79,060 annual
State wages
Local wages
Employment (2021)
159,800 employees
Projected growth (2021-2031)
Much faster than average (11% or higher)
Projected job openings (2021-2031)
14,000
State trends
Top industries (2021)
Health Care and Social Assistance (50% employed in this sector)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2021 wage data external site and 2021-2031 employment projections external site. “Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2021-2031). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

State job openings
Local job openings

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

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