Music Directors and Composers
27-2041.00

The occupation code you requested, 27-2041.04 (Music Composers and Arrangers), is no longer in use. In the future, please use 27-2041.00 (Music Directors and Composers) instead.

Conduct, direct, plan, and lead instrumental or vocal performances by musical artists or groups, such as orchestras, bands, choirs, and glee clubs; or create original works of music.

Sample of reported job titles: Arranger, Choir Director, Composer, Conductor, Music Composer, Music Director, Music Producer, Orchestra Director, Songwriter

Occupation-Specific Information

Tasks Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceCategoryTask
95
 
Core
Use gestures to shape the music being played, communicating desired tempo, phrasing, tone, color, pitch, volume, and other performance aspects.
91
 
Core
Direct groups at rehearsals and live or recorded performances to achieve desired effects such as tonal and harmonic balance dynamics, rhythm, and tempo.
90
 
Core
Study scores to learn the music in detail, and to develop interpretations.
88
 
Core
Apply elements of music theory to create musical and tonal structures, including harmonies and melodies.
88
 
Core
Consider such factors as ensemble size and abilities, availability of scores, and the need for musical variety, to select music to be performed.
84
 
Core
Determine voices, instruments, harmonic structures, rhythms, tempos, and tone balances required to achieve the effects desired in a musical composition.
82
 
Core
Experiment with different sounds, and types and pieces of music, using synthesizers and computers as necessary to test and evaluate ideas.
80
 
Core
Transcribe ideas for musical compositions into musical notation, using instruments, pen and paper, or computers.
79
 
Core
Audition and select performers for musical presentations.
78
 
Core
Plan and schedule rehearsals and performances, and arrange details such as locations, accompanists, and instrumentalists.
75
 
Core
Write musical scores for orchestras, bands, choral groups, or individual instrumentalists or vocalists, using knowledge of music theory and of instrumental and vocal capabilities.
73
 
Core
Position members within groups to obtain balance among instrumental or vocal sections.
72
 
Core
Perform administrative tasks such as applying for grants, developing budgets, negotiating contracts, and designing and printing programs and other promotional materials.
71
 
Core
Confer with producers and directors to define the nature and placement of film or television music.
71
 
Core
Meet with soloists and concertmasters to discuss and prepare for performances.
71
 
Core
Fill in details of orchestral sketches, such as adding vocal parts to scores.
70
 
Core
Explore and develop musical ideas based on sources such as imagination or sounds in the environment.
70
 
Core
Write music for commercial mediums, including advertising jingles or film soundtracks.
69
 
Core
Transpose music from one voice or instrument to another to accommodate particular musicians.
67
 
Core
Rewrite original musical scores in different musical styles by changing rhythms, harmonies, or tempos.
64
 
Core
Arrange music composed by others, changing the music to achieve desired effects.
63
 
Core
Assign and review staff work in such areas as scoring, arranging, and copying music, and vocal coaching.
62
 
Core
Study films or scripts to determine how musical scores can be used to create desired effects or moods.
62
 
Core
Transcribe musical compositions and melodic lines to adapt them to a particular group, or to create a particular musical style.
60
 
Core
Create original musical forms, or write within circumscribed musical forms such as sonatas, symphonies, or operas.
60
 
Core
Collaborate with other colleagues, such as copyists, to complete final scores.
56
 
Core
Copy parts from scores for individual performers.
63
 
Supplemental
Coordinate and organize tours, or hire touring companies to arrange concert dates, venues, accommodations, and transportation for longer tours.
Not availableNot available
Produce recordings of music.
Not availableNot available
Stay abreast of the latest trends in music and music technology.

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Technology Skills Save Table: XLSX CSV

Hot technology
Hot Technologies are requirements most frequently included across all employer job postings.

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Tools Used Save Table: XLSX CSV

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Occupational Requirements

Work Activities Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceWork Activity
87
 
Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
86
 
Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
79
 
Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
75
 
Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
73
 
Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
70
 
Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
69
 
Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
68
 
Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
66
 
Communicating with People Outside the Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
65
 
Judging the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
65
 
Working with Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
64
 
Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
63
 
Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
60
 
Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
59
 
Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
59
 
Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
57
 
Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
57
 
Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
56
 
Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
54
 
Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
53
 
Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
51
 
Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
48
 
Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
47
 
Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
46
 
Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
45
 
Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
44
 
Providing Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
44
 
Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
39
 
Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling materials.
38
 
Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
36
 
Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
34
 
Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
31
 
Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
27
 
Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Materials — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
25
 
Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
22
 
Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
19
 
Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
13
 
Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
13
 
Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
10
 
Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or watercraft.
10
 
Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.

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Detailed Work Activities Save Table: XLSX CSV

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Work Context Save Table: XLSX CSV

  • Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
    • 77%
      77%
       
      responded: A lot of freedom
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Some freedom
  • Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
    • 70%
      70%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
    • 60%
      60%
       
      responded: A lot of freedom
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Some freedom
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
    • 70%
      70%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 12%
      12%
       
      responded: Important
  • Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
    • 50%
      50%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 40%
      40%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
    • 73%
      73%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Never
  • Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
    • 42%
      42%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
  • Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
    • 54%
      54%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Important
  • Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
    • 48%
      48%
       
      responded: Constant contact with others
    • 30%
      30%
       
      responded: Contact with others most of the time
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Contact with others about half the time
  • Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
    • 46%
      46%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Important
    • 12%
      12%
       
      responded: Fairly important
  • Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?
    • 30%
      30%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 44%
      44%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
    • 34%
      34%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
    • 46%
      46%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 12%
      12%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 28%
      28%
       
      responded: Important
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — What results do your decisions usually have on other people or the image or reputation or financial resources of your employer?
    • 40%
      40%
       
      responded: Very important results
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Important results
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Minor results
  • Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 37%
      37%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: Never
  • Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?
    • 20%
      20%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 39%
      39%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
    • 43%
      43%
       
      responded: Extremely competitive
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Highly competitive
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Slightly competitive
    • 22%
      22%
       
      responded: Not at all competitive
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: Very high responsibility
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: High responsibility
    • 20%
      20%
       
      responded: Moderate responsibility
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: No responsibility
  • Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
  • Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
    • 44%
      44%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 12%
      12%
       
      responded: Important
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Fairly important
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 44%
      44%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Never
  • Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.
    • 52%
      52%
       
      responded: More than 40 hours
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: 40 hours
    • 37%
      37%
       
      responded: Less than 40 hours
  • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
    • 42%
      42%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 12%
      12%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Never
  • Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Very close (near touching)
    • 33%
      33%
       
      responded: Moderately close (at arm's length)
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: Slightly close (e.g., shared office)
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: I don't work near other people (beyond 100 ft.)
  • Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
    • 12%
      12%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 51%
      51%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Never
  • Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 33%
      33%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Never
  • Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 39%
      39%
       
      responded: Never
  • Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 58%
      58%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: High responsibility
    • 34%
      34%
       
      responded: Moderate responsibility
    • 30%
      30%
       
      responded: Limited responsibility
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: No responsibility
  • Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Serious
    • 34%
      34%
       
      responded: Fairly serious
    • 36%
      36%
       
      responded: Not serious at all
  • In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 62%
      62%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 68%
      68%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?
    • 51%
      51%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 43%
      43%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 81%
      81%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 60%
      60%
       
      responded: Never
  • Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?
    • 31%
      31%
       
      responded: Irregular (changes with weather conditions, production demands, or contract duration)
    • 69%
      69%
       
      responded: Regular (established routine, set schedule)
  • Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?
    • 34%
      34%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 59%
      59%
       
      responded: Never
  • Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 65%
      65%
       
      responded: Never
  • Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Slightly automated
    • 73%
      73%
       
      responded: Not at all automated
  • Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
    • 81%
      81%
       
      responded: Never
  • Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 80%
      80%
       
      responded: Never
  • Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 73%
      73%
       
      responded: Never
  • Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 77%
      77%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?
    • 83%
      83%
       
      responded: Never
  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?
    • 93%
      93%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?
    • 90%
      90%
       
      responded: Never
  • Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
    • 93%
      93%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?
    • 92%
      92%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?
    • 95%
      95%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?
    • 12%
      12%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 88%
      88%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?
    • 93%
      93%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?
    • 97%
      97%
       
      responded: Never
  • Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?
    • 98%
      98%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?
    • 99%
      99%
       
      responded: Never

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Experience Requirements

Job Zone Save Table: XLSX CSV

Title
Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed
Education
Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.
Related Experience
A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.
Job Training
Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.
Job Zone Examples
Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include real estate brokers, sales managers, database administrators, graphic designers, conservation scientists, art directors, and cost estimators.
SVP Range
(7.0 to < 8.0)

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Training & Credentials

State training
Local training
Certifications

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Apprenticeship Opportunities

Start your career and build your skillset. Visit Apprenticeship.gov external site to learn about opportunities related to this occupation.

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Worker Requirements

Skills Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceSkill
72
 
Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
66
 
Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
63
 
Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions, or approaches to problems.
63
 
Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
63
 
Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
60
 
Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
60
 
Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
60
 
Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
56
 
Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
56
 
Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
53
 
Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
53
 
Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
53
 
Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
53
 
Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
50
 
Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
50
 
Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
47
 
Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
47
 
Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
44
 
Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
44
 
Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
31
 
Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
31
 
Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
28
 
Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
28
 
Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
22
 
Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
16
 
Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
16
 
Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
10
 
Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
10
 
Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
6
 
Operations Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
6
 
Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
6
 
Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
0
 
Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
0
 
Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
0
 
Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.

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Knowledge Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceKnowledge
93
 
Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
70
 
English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
62
 
Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
60
 
Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
52
 
Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
52
 
Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
49
 
Administrative — Knowledge of administrative and office procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and workplace terminology.
47
 
Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
45
 
Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
40
 
Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
38
 
Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
37
 
Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
34
 
History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
29
 
Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
27
 
Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
26
 
Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures, and their history and origins.
24
 
Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking, and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
24
 
Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
23
 
Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
22
 
Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
21
 
Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
19
 
Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
17
 
Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
16
 
Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
15
 
Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
10
 
Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
10
 
Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub-atomic structures and processes.
10
 
Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
5
 
Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
4
 
Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
3
 
Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
2
 
Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
2
 
Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.

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Education

How much education does a new hire need to perform a job in this occupation? Respondents said:

  • 28%
     
    responded: Master’s degree required
  • 24%
     
    responded: Bachelor’s degree required
  • 21%
     
    responded: Doctoral degree required

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Worker Characteristics

Abilities Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceAbility
81
 
Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
69
 
Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
69
 
Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
69
 
Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
69
 
Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
66
 
Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
66
 
Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
66
 
Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
63
 
Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
63
 
Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
63
 
Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
63
 
Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
63
 
Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
63
 
Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
60
 
Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem.
53
 
Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
53
 
Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
53
 
Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
50
 
Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
50
 
Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
44
 
Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
44
 
Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
44
 
Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
41
 
Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
38
 
Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
38
 
Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without "giving out" or fatiguing.
35
 
Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
35
 
Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
31
 
Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
31
 
Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
31
 
Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
28
 
Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
28
 
Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
28
 
Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
25
 
Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
25
 
Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
25
 
Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
22
 
Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
22
 
Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
22
 
Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
22
 
Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
19
 
Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
19
 
Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
19
 
Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.
16
 
Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
13
 
Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
13
 
Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
13
 
Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
3
 
Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
3
 
Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of a glare or bright lighting.
3
 
Night Vision — The ability to see under low-light conditions.
3
 
Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.

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Interests Save Table: XLSX CSV

Occupational InterestInterest
100
 
Artistic — Work involves creating original visual artwork, performances, written works, food, or music for a variety of media, or applying artistic principles to the design of various objects and materials. Artistic occupations are often associated with visual arts, applied arts and design, performing arts, music, creative writing, media, or culinary art.
63
 
Enterprising — Work involves managing, negotiating, marketing, or selling, typically in a business setting, or leading or advising people in political and legal situations. Enterprising occupations are often associated with business initiatives, sales, marketing/advertising, finance, management/administration, professional advising, public speaking, politics, or law.
34
 
Social — Work involves helping, teaching, advising, assisting, or providing service to others. Social occupations are often associated with social, health care, personal service, teaching/education, or religious activities.
27
 
Conventional — Work involves following procedures and regulations to organize information or data, typically in a business setting. Conventional occupations are often associated with office work, accounting, mathematics/statistics, information technology, finance, or human resources.
21
 
Investigative — Work involves studying and researching non-living objects, living organisms, disease or other forms of impairment, or human behavior. Investigative occupations are often associated with physical, life, medical, or social sciences, and can be found in the fields of humanities, mathematics/statistics, information technology, or health care service.
17
 
Realistic — Work involves designing, building, or repairing of equipment, materials, or structures, engaging in physical activity, or working outdoors. Realistic occupations are often associated with engineering, mechanics and electronics, construction, woodworking, transportation, machine operation, agriculture, animal services, physical or manual labor, athletics, or protective services.

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Work Values Save Table: XLSX CSV

ExtentWork Value
89
 
Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
75
 
Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
70
 
Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
64
 
Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
57
 
Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
36
 
Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

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Work Styles Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceWork Style
93
 
Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
93
 
Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
88
 
Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
85
 
Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
84
 
Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
84
 
Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
84
 
Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
82
 
Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
82
 
Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
82
 
Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
79
 
Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
77
 
Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.
76
 
Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
76
 
Self-Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
72
 
Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
68
 
Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

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Workforce Characteristics

Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2023)
$30.09 hourly, $62,590 annual
State wages
Local wages
Employment (2022)
51,800 employees
Projected growth (2022-2032)
Little or no change
Projected job openings (2022-2032)
5,100
State trends
Top industries (2022)
Other Services (Except Public Administration) (62% employed in this sector)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2023 wage data external site and 2022-2032 employment projections external site . “Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2022-2032). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

State job openings
Local job openings

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More Information

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Professional Associations

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

National Associations
Accreditation, Certification, & Unions

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