Cartographers and Photogrammetrists

Research, study, and prepare maps and other spatial data in digital or graphic form for one or more purposes, such as legal, social, political, educational, and design purposes. May work with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). May design and evaluate algorithms, data structures, and user interfaces for GIS and mapping systems. May collect, analyze, and interpret geographic information provided by geodetic surveys, aerial photographs, and satellite data.

Sample of reported job titles: Aerial Photogrammetrist, Cartographer, Cartographic Designer, Digital Cartographer, Mapper, Photogrammetric Technician, Photogrammetrist, Stereo Compiler, Stereoplotter Operator

Occupation-Specific Information

Tasks Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceCategoryTask
88
 
Core
Compile data required for map preparation, including aerial photographs, survey notes, records, reports, and original maps.
87
 
Core
Delineate aerial photographic detail, such as control points, hydrography, topography, and cultural features, using precision stereoplotting apparatus or drafting instruments.
87
 
Core
Prepare and alter trace maps, charts, tables, detailed drawings, and three-dimensional optical models of terrain using stereoscopic plotting and computer graphics equipment.
82
 
Core
Study legal records to establish boundaries of local, national, and international properties.
81
 
Core
Inspect final compositions to ensure completeness and accuracy.
80
 
Core
Revise existing maps and charts, making all necessary corrections and adjustments.
78
 
Core
Identify, scale, and orient geodetic points, elevations, and other planimetric or topographic features, applying standard mathematical formulas.
76
 
Core
Collect information about specific features of the Earth, using aerial photography and other digital remote sensing techniques.
75
 
Core
Examine and analyze data from ground surveys, reports, aerial photographs, and satellite images to prepare topographic maps, aerial-photograph mosaics, and related charts.
71
 
Core
Build and update digital databases.
69
 
Core
Determine map content and layout, as well as production specifications such as scale, size, projection, and colors, and direct production to ensure that specifications are followed.
74
 
Supplemental
Determine guidelines that specify which source material is acceptable for use.
68
 
Supplemental
Select aerial photographic and remote sensing techniques and plotting equipment needed to meet required standards of accuracy.
46
 
Supplemental
Travel over photographed areas to observe, identify, record, and verify all relevant features.

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Technology Skills Save Table: XLSX CSV

  • Analytical or scientific software — Boeing SoftPlotter; Image analysis software; RSI ENVI; Terrasolid TerraScan; 1 more
  • Cloud-based data access and sharing software — Microsoft SharePoint Hot technology
  • Computer aided design CAD software — Autodesk AutoCAD Hot technology ; Bentley MicroStation Hot technology ; Cosmo Software Cosmo World; MultiGen Paradigm Vega Prime
  • Data base management system software — SAP Adaptive Server Enterprise
  • Data base user interface and query software — Autodesk World; Microsoft Access Hot technology ; Oracle Database Hot technology ; Structured query language SQL Hot technology
  • Data compression software — Arbor Image Draftsman
  • Desktop publishing software — Adobe InDesign Hot technology ; Corporate Montage CADScript; QuarkXPress
  • Development environment software — C In-Demand Hot technology ; Microsoft Visual Basic Hot technology ; Software development tools; Standardized general markup language SGML
  • Document management software — Adobe Acrobat Hot technology
  • Electronic mail software — Email software; Microsoft Outlook Hot technology
  • Enterprise application integration software — Extensible markup language XML Hot technology
  • Enterprise resource planning ERP software — SAP software Hot technology
  • Flight control software — Leica AEROPLAN LiDAR
  • Geographic information system — ESRI ArcGIS software In-Demand Hot technology ; ESRI software; Geographic information system GIS software; Geographic information system GIS systems In Demand ; 2 more
  • Graphics or photo imaging software — Adobe Creative Cloud software Hot technology ; Adobe Illustrator Hot technology ; Adobe Photoshop Hot technology ; Corel CorelDraw Graphics Suite; 3 more
  • Information retrieval or search software — Digital databases; Master Seafloor Digital Database; Rand McNally World Digital Database; World Vector Shoreline
  • Internet browser software — Microsoft Internet Explorer
  • Map creation software — Geomechanical design analysis GDA software; Mapping software; Mapthematics GeoCart; Precision analytical aerotriangulation pugging software; 7 more
  • Object or component oriented development software — Python In-Demand Hot technology
  • Office suite software — Microsoft Office software Hot technology
  • Operating system software — Microsoft operating system; Microsoft Windows Hot technology
  • Platform interconnectivity software — IBM iSeries Access
  • Presentation software — Microsoft PowerPoint Hot technology
  • Spreadsheet software — Microsoft Excel In-Demand Hot technology
  • Web page creation and editing software — Adobe Dreamweaver; Quark Immedia
  • Web platform development software — JavaScript Object Notation JSON Hot technology
  • Word processing software — Microsoft Word Hot technology
Hot technology
Hot Technologies are requirements most frequently included across all employer job postings.
In demand
In Demand skills are frequently included in employer job postings for this occupation.

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Tools Used Save Table: XLSX CSV

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Occupational Requirements

Work Activities Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceWork Activity
97
 
Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
92
 
Working with Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
81
 
Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
81
 
Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
80
 
Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
80
 
Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
79
 
Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
78
 
Communicating with People Outside the Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
78
 
Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
77
 
Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
77
 
Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
72
 
Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
71
 
Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
70
 
Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
70
 
Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
69
 
Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
68
 
Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
63
 
Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
63
 
Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
60
 
Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
60
 
Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
58
 
Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
56
 
Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
56
 
Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
55
 
Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
51
 
Judging the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
47
 
Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
43
 
Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Materials — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
43
 
Providing Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
41
 
Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
37
 
Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
34
 
Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
30
 
Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
28
 
Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
26
 
Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
25
 
Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or watercraft.
23
 
Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
19
 
Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
18
 
Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling materials.
13
 
Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
7
 
Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.

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Detailed Work Activities Save Table: XLSX CSV

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Work Context Save Table: XLSX CSV

  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
    • 98%
      98%
       
      responded: Every day
  • Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
    • 87%
      87%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
    • 87%
      87%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Very important
  • Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
    • 83%
      83%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: More than half the time
  • Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
    • 68%
      68%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 31%
      31%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
  • Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
    • 71%
      71%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
  • Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
    • 44%
      44%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 55%
      55%
       
      responded: Very important
  • Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
    • 56%
      56%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 30%
      30%
       
      responded: Important
  • Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
    • 56%
      56%
       
      responded: Constant contact with others
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Contact with others most of the time
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Contact with others about half the time
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Occasional contact with others
  • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
    • 50%
      50%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 31%
      31%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
  • Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
    • 46%
      46%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Important
  • Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: A lot of freedom
    • 51%
      51%
       
      responded: Some freedom
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: A lot of freedom
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Limited freedom
  • Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?
    • 37%
      37%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 46%
      46%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Never
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — What results do your decisions usually have on other people or the image or reputation or financial resources of your employer?
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Very important results
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Moderate results
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: No results
  • Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Less than 40 hours
  • Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 30%
      30%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?
    • 53%
      53%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 34%
      34%
       
      responded: Never
  • Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 37%
      37%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 12%
      12%
       
      responded: Never
  • Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?
    • 32%
      32%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Never
  • Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?
    • 50%
      50%
       
      responded: Moderately close (at arm's length)
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Slightly close (e.g., shared office)
    • 34%
      34%
       
      responded: I work with others but not closely (e.g., private office)
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Very high responsibility
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: High responsibility
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Moderate responsibility
    • 20%
      20%
       
      responded: Limited responsibility
  • Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Never
  • Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Extremely competitive
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Highly competitive
    • 30%
      30%
       
      responded: Not at all competitive
  • Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?
    • 42%
      42%
       
      responded: Highly automated
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Moderately automated
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Slightly automated
  • Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 28%
      28%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Extremely serious
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Very serious
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Serious
  • Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 72%
      72%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?
    • 34%
      34%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Never
  • Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
    • 28%
      28%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 57%
      57%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Never
  • Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Never
  • Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 50%
      50%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
    • 82%
      82%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Never
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: High responsibility
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: Moderate responsibility
    • 68%
      68%
       
      responded: No responsibility
  • Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?
    • 72%
      72%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 61%
      61%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?
  • Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 68%
      68%
       
      responded: Never
  • Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?
  • Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 61%
      61%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 65%
      65%
       
      responded: Never
  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?
    • 31%
      31%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 68%
      68%
       
      responded: Never
  • Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?
    • 12%
      12%
       
      responded: Irregular (changes with weather conditions, production demands, or contract duration)
    • 88%
      88%
       
      responded: Regular (established routine, set schedule)
  • Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 82%
      82%
       
      responded: Never
  • Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 81%
      81%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 82%
      82%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 85%
      85%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 85%
      85%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 85%
      85%
       
      responded: Never
  • In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?
    • 12%
      12%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 88%
      88%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?
    • 94%
      94%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?
    • 99%
      99%
       
      responded: Never
  • Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?
    • 96%
      96%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Not important at all

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Experience Requirements

Job Zone Save Table: XLSX CSV

Title
Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed
Education
Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.
Related Experience
A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.
Job Training
Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.
Job Zone Examples
Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include real estate brokers, sales managers, database administrators, graphic designers, conservation scientists, art directors, and cost estimators.
SVP Range
(7.0 to < 8.0)

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Training & Credentials

State training
Local training
Certifications
State licenses

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Apprenticeship Opportunities

Example apprenticeship titles for this occupation:

  • Drafter, Cartographic
  • Geospatial Specialist

Specific title(s) listed above are vetted by industry and approved by the U.S. Department of Labor for use in a Registered Apprenticeship Program.

Start your career and build your skillset. Visit Apprenticeship.gov external site to learn about opportunities related to this occupation.

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Worker Requirements

Skills Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceSkill
75
 
Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
63
 
Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions, or approaches to problems.
63
 
Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
60
 
Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
56
 
Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
53
 
Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
53
 
Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
53
 
Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
53
 
Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
50
 
Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
50
 
Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
50
 
Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
47
 
Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
47
 
Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
47
 
Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
44
 
Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
44
 
Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
44
 
Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
35
 
Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
35
 
Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
31
 
Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
28
 
Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
22
 
Operations Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
22
 
Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
22
 
Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
19
 
Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.
16
 
Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
16
 
Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
16
 
Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
16
 
Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
13
 
Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
10
 
Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
10
 
Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
6
 
Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
0
 
Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.

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Knowledge Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceKnowledge
88
 
Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
81
 
Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
64
 
English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
59
 
Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
58
 
Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
48
 
Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
46
 
Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
44
 
Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
41
 
Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
40
 
Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
37
 
Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
36
 
Administrative — Knowledge of administrative and office procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and workplace terminology.
34
 
Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
31
 
Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
30
 
Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
28
 
Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
27
 
Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
25
 
Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
17
 
Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub-atomic structures and processes.
16
 
History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
14
 
Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
14
 
Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
12
 
Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
11
 
Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking, and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
10
 
Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
10
 
Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures, and their history and origins.
9
 
Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
6
 
Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
3
 
Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
1
 
Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
0
 
Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
0
 
Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
0
 
Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.

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Education

How much education does a new hire need to perform a job in this occupation? Respondents said:

  • 36%
     
    responded: Post-secondary certificate required
  • 30%
     
    responded: Bachelor’s degree required
  • 11%
     
    responded: Some college, no degree requiredmore info

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Worker Characteristics

Abilities Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceAbility
75
 
Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
72
 
Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
72
 
Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
66
 
Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
63
 
Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
63
 
Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
63
 
Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
60
 
Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
56
 
Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
56
 
Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
56
 
Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
53
 
Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
53
 
Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem.
53
 
Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
53
 
Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
50
 
Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
50
 
Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
50
 
Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
50
 
Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
50
 
Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
47
 
Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
47
 
Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
47
 
Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
47
 
Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
44
 
Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
44
 
Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
41
 
Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
38
 
Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
31
 
Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
31
 
Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
31
 
Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
25
 
Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without "giving out" or fatiguing.
19
 
Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
13
 
Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
13
 
Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
10
 
Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
10
 
Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
6
 
Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
3
 
Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
3
 
Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
0
 
Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
0
 
Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
0
 
Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of a glare or bright lighting.
0
 
Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
0
 
Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
0
 
Night Vision — The ability to see under low-light conditions.
0
 
Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
0
 
Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
0
 
Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
0
 
Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
0
 
Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
0
 
Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.

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Interests Save Table: XLSX CSV

Occupational InterestInterest
72
 
Conventional — Work involves following procedures and regulations to organize information or data, typically in a business setting. Conventional occupations are often associated with office work, accounting, mathematics/statistics, information technology, finance, or human resources.
69
 
Investigative — Work involves studying and researching non-living objects, living organisms, disease or other forms of impairment, or human behavior. Investigative occupations are often associated with physical, life, medical, or social sciences, and can be found in the fields of humanities, mathematics/statistics, information technology, or health care service.
60
 
Realistic — Work involves designing, building, or repairing of equipment, materials, or structures, engaging in physical activity, or working outdoors. Realistic occupations are often associated with engineering, mechanics and electronics, construction, woodworking, transportation, machine operation, agriculture, animal services, physical or manual labor, athletics, or protective services.
43
 
Artistic — Work involves creating original visual artwork, performances, written works, food, or music for a variety of media, or applying artistic principles to the design of various objects and materials. Artistic occupations are often associated with visual arts, applied arts and design, performing arts, music, creative writing, media, or culinary art.
13
 
Social — Work involves helping, teaching, advising, assisting, or providing service to others. Social occupations are often associated with social, health care, personal service, teaching/education, or religious activities.
11
 
Enterprising — Work involves managing, negotiating, marketing, or selling, typically in a business setting, or leading or advising people in political and legal situations. Enterprising occupations are often associated with business initiatives, sales, marketing/advertising, finance, management/administration, professional advising, public speaking, politics, or law.

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Work Values Save Table: XLSX CSV

ExtentWork Value
67
 
Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
61
 
Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
61
 
Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
50
 
Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
45
 
Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
39
 
Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.

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Work Styles Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceWork Style
91
 
Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
79
 
Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
74
 
Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
71
 
Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
71
 
Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
70
 
Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
69
 
Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
68
 
Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
66
 
Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
65
 
Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
63
 
Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
60
 
Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
57
 
Self-Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
52
 
Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.
48
 
Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
42
 
Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

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Workforce Characteristics

Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2023)
$36.64 hourly, $76,210 annual
State wages
Local wages
Employment (2022)
14,000 employees
Projected growth (2022-2032)
Faster than average (5% to 8%)
Projected job openings (2022-2032)
1,000
State trends
Top industries (2022)
Government (42% employed in this sector)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2023 wage data external site and 2022-2032 employment projections external site. “Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2022-2032). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

State job openings
Local job openings

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More Information

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Professional Associations

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

National Associations

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