Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks
43-3051.00

Compile and record employee time and payroll data. May compute employees' time worked, production, and commission. May compute and post wages and deductions, or prepare paychecks.

Sample of reported job titles: Accounting Technician, Human Resources Assistant (HR Assistant), Payroll Administrator, Payroll Assistant, Payroll Clerk, Payroll Coordinator, Payroll Representative, Payroll Specialist, Payroll Technician

Occupation-Specific Information

Tasks Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceCategoryTask
94
 
Core
Process and issue employee paychecks and statements of earnings and deductions.
94
 
Core
Compute wages and deductions, and enter data into computers.
92
 
Core
Review time sheets, work charts, wage computation, and other information to detect and reconcile payroll discrepancies.
91
 
Core
Compile employee time, production, and payroll data from time sheets and other records.
90
 
Core
Process paperwork for new employees and enter employee information into the payroll system.
88
 
Core
Verify attendance, hours worked, and pay adjustments, and post information onto designated records.
87
 
Core
Record employee information, such as exemptions, transfers, and resignations, to maintain and update payroll records.
85
 
Core
Issue and record adjustments to pay related to previous errors or retroactive increases.
83
 
Core
Keep track of leave time, such as vacation, personal, and sick leave, for employees.
74
 
Core
Provide information to employees and managers on payroll matters, tax issues, benefit plans, and collective agreement provisions.
70
 
Core
Conduct verifications of employment.
90
 
Supplemental
Distribute and collect timecards each pay period.
89
 
Supplemental
Keep informed about changes in tax and deduction laws that apply to the payroll process.
88
 
Supplemental
Balance cash and payroll accounts.
88
 
Supplemental
Complete, verify, and process forms and documentation for administration of benefits, such as pension plans, and unemployment and medical insurance.
84
 
Supplemental
Complete time sheets showing employees' arrival and departure times.
82
 
Supplemental
Prepare and balance period-end reports, and reconcile issued payrolls to bank statements.
80
 
Supplemental
Post relevant work hours to client files to bill clients properly.
74
 
Supplemental
Compile statistical reports, statements, and summaries related to pay and benefits accounts, and submit them to appropriate departments.
66
 
Supplemental
Train employees on organizations' timekeeping systems.
58
 
Supplemental
Coordinate special programs, such as United Way campaigns, that involve payroll deductions.

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Technology Skills Save Table: XLSX CSV

Hot technology Hot Technologies are requirements frequently included in employer job postings.

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Tools Used Save Table: XLSX CSV

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Occupational Requirements

Work Activities Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceWork Activity
90
 
Getting Information — Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
86
 
Processing Information — Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
80
 
Documenting/Recording Information — Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
80
 
Performing Administrative Activities — Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork.
80
 
Working with Computers — Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
76
 
Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
76
 
Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards — Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
71
 
Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
69
 
Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships — Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
68
 
Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events — Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
66
 
Monitoring Processes, Materials, or Surroundings — Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
65
 
Analyzing Data or Information — Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
62
 
Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge — Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
59
 
Making Decisions and Solving Problems — Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
51
 
Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others — Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
48
 
Communicating with People Outside the Organization — Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
45
 
Judging the Qualities of Objects, Services, or People — Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
42
 
Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others — Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.
42
 
Scheduling Work and Activities — Scheduling events, programs, and activities, as well as the work of others.
41
 
Thinking Creatively — Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
39
 
Assisting and Caring for Others — Providing personal assistance, medical attention, emotional support, or other personal care to others such as coworkers, customers, or patients.
37
 
Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — Getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks.
37
 
Developing Objectives and Strategies — Establishing long-range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve them.
36
 
Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Products, Events, or Information — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
35
 
Monitoring and Controlling Resources — Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
34
 
Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Materials — Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects.
31
 
Training and Teaching Others — Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
30
 
Developing and Building Teams — Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
29
 
Coaching and Developing Others — Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
28
 
Providing Consultation and Advice to Others — Providing guidance and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-, or process-related topics.
24
 
Performing for or Working Directly with the Public — Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
23
 
Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance.
19
 
Controlling Machines and Processes — Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
19
 
Staffing Organizational Units — Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting employees in an organization.
17
 
Performing General Physical Activities — Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling materials.
17
 
Selling or Influencing Others — Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods or to otherwise change their minds or actions.
15
 
Handling and Moving Objects — Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things.
12
 
Repairing and Maintaining Electronic Equipment — Servicing, repairing, calibrating, regulating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
8
 
Operating Vehicles, Mechanized Devices, or Equipment — Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or watercraft.
7
 
Drafting, Laying Out, and Specifying Technical Devices, Parts, and Equipment — Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to tell others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
3
 
Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment — Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.

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Detailed Work Activities Save Table: XLSX CSV

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Work Context Save Table: XLSX CSV

  • Electronic Mail — How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
    • 90%
      90%
       
      responded: Every day
  • Importance of Repeating Same Tasks — How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
    • 96%
      96%
       
      responded: Extremely important
  • Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
    • 93%
      93%
       
      responded: Every day
  • Importance of Being Exact or Accurate — How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
    • 87%
      87%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Very important
  • Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
    • 62%
      62%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
  • Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
    • 66%
      66%
       
      responded: A lot of freedom
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Some freedom
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Limited freedom
  • Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
    • 58%
      58%
       
      responded: Constant contact with others
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: Contact with others most of the time
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: Contact with others about half the time
  • Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
    • 48%
      48%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: About half the time
  • Time Pressure — How often does this job require the worker to meet strict deadlines?
    • 38%
      38%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 48%
      48%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
  • Indoors, Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
    • 76%
      76%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Never
  • Frequency of Decision Making — How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
    • 47%
      47%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results — What results do your decisions usually have on other people or the image or reputation or financial resources of your employer?
    • 37%
      37%
       
      responded: Very important results
    • 34%
      34%
       
      responded: Important results
    • 20%
      20%
       
      responded: Moderate results
  • Work With Work Group or Team — How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
    • 45%
      45%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: Fairly important
  • Coordinate or Lead Others — How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
    • 43%
      43%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 22%
      22%
       
      responded: Very important
    • 20%
      20%
       
      responded: Important
  • Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: A lot of freedom
    • 42%
      42%
       
      responded: Some freedom
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Limited freedom
  • Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?
    • 46%
      46%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 21%
      21%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: Never
  • Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.
    • 44%
      44%
       
      responded: More than 40 hours
    • 44%
      44%
       
      responded: 40 hours
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Less than 40 hours
  • Letters and Memos — How often does the job require written letters and memos?
    • 19%
      19%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 41%
      41%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 12%
      12%
       
      responded: Never
  • Sounds, Noise Levels Are Distracting or Uncomfortable — How often does this job require working exposed to sounds and noise levels that are distracting or uncomfortable?
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 20%
      20%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 24%
      24%
       
      responded: Never
  • Frequency of Conflict Situations — How often are there conflict situations the employee has to face in this job?
    • 31%
      31%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 27%
      27%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Responsibility for Outcomes and Results — How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
    • 31%
      31%
       
      responded: Very high responsibility
    • 12%
      12%
       
      responded: High responsibility
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Moderate responsibility
    • 31%
      31%
       
      responded: Limited responsibility
  • Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
    • 36%
      36%
       
      responded: Extremely important
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Important
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Fairly important
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People — How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
    • 13%
      13%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 22%
      22%
       
      responded: Once a week or more but not every day
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 39%
      39%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
  • Degree of Automation — How automated is the job?
    • 36%
      36%
       
      responded: Highly automated
    • 31%
      31%
       
      responded: Moderately automated
    • 12%
      12%
       
      responded: Slightly automated
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Not at all automated
  • Level of Competition — To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
    • 22%
      22%
       
      responded: Highly competitive
    • 49%
      49%
       
      responded: Moderately competitive
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: Slightly competitive
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Not at all competitive
  • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Continually or almost continually
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: More than half the time
    • 52%
      52%
       
      responded: Never
  • Physical Proximity — To what extent does this job require the worker to perform job tasks in close physical proximity to other people?
    • 12%
      12%
       
      responded: Moderately close (at arm's length)
    • 23%
      23%
       
      responded: Slightly close (e.g., shared office)
    • 63%
      63%
       
      responded: I work with others but not closely (e.g., private office)
  • Consequence of Error — How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
    • 22%
      22%
       
      responded: Very serious
    • 16%
      16%
       
      responded: Serious
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Fairly serious
    • 29%
      29%
       
      responded: Not serious at all
  • Responsible for Others' Health and Safety — How much responsibility is there for the health and safety of others in this job?
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: High responsibility
    • 14%
      14%
       
      responded: Moderate responsibility
    • 25%
      25%
       
      responded: Limited responsibility
    • 35%
      35%
       
      responded: No responsibility
  • Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?
    • 18%
      18%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 66%
      66%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
    • 11%
      11%
       
      responded: About half the time
    • 59%
      59%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 30%
      30%
       
      responded: Never
  • Very Hot or Cold Temperatures — How often does this job require working in very hot (above 90 F degrees) or very cold (below 32 F degrees) temperatures?
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Every day
    • 78%
      78%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Bending or Twisting the Body — How much does this job require bending or twisting your body?
    • 64%
      64%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 36%
      36%
       
      responded: Never
  • Public Speaking — How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: Once a month or more but not every week
    • 17%
      17%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 63%
      63%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?
    • 56%
      56%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 42%
      42%
       
      responded: Never
  • Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets — How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?
    • 89%
      89%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Disease or Infections — How often does this job require exposure to disease/infections?
    • 92%
      92%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Kneeling, Crouching, Stooping, or Crawling — How much does this job require kneeling, crouching, stooping or crawling?
    • 26%
      26%
       
      responded: Less than half the time
    • 74%
      74%
       
      responded: Never
  • Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment — How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
    • 15%
      15%
       
      responded: Fairly important
    • 82%
      82%
       
      responded: Not important at all
  • Deal With Physically Aggressive People — How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
    • 87%
      87%
       
      responded: Never
  • Outdoors, Exposed to Weather — How often does this job require working outdoors, exposed to all weather conditions?
    • 91%
      91%
       
      responded: Never
  • Outdoors, Under Cover — How often does this job require working outdoors, under cover (e.g., structure with roof but no walls)?
    • 93%
      93%
       
      responded: Never
  • Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?
    • 91%
      91%
       
      responded: Regular (established routine, set schedule)
  • Exposed to Minor Burns, Cuts, Bites, or Stings — How often does this job require exposure to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings?
    • 92%
      92%
       
      responded: Never
  • Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting — How often does this job require working in extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
    • 92%
      92%
       
      responded: Never
  • Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions — How often does this job require working in cramped work spaces that requires getting into awkward positions?
    • 12%
      12%
       
      responded: Once a year or more but not every month
    • 87%
      87%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Hazardous Equipment — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous equipment?
    • 97%
      97%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Radiation — How often does this job require exposure to radiation?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • In an Enclosed Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in a closed vehicle or equipment (e.g., car)?
    • 98%
      98%
       
      responded: Never
  • Indoors, Not Environmentally Controlled — How often does this job require working indoors in non-controlled environmental conditions (e.g., warehouse without heat)?
    • 98%
      98%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Keeping or Regaining Balance — How much does this job require keeping or regaining your balance?
    • 98%
      98%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Hazardous Conditions — How often does this job require exposure to hazardous conditions?
    • 99%
      99%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to High Places — How often does this job require exposure to high places?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • Exposed to Whole Body Vibration — How often does this job require exposure to whole body vibration (e.g., operate a jackhammer)?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • In an Open Vehicle or Equipment — How often does this job require working in an open vehicle or equipment (e.g., tractor)?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • Spend Time Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, or Poles — How much does this job require climbing ladders, scaffolds, or poles?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never
  • Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or Radiation Protection — How much does this job require wearing specialized protective or safety equipment such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suits, or radiation protection?
    • 100%
      100%
       
      responded: Never

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Experience Requirements

Job Zone Save Table: XLSX CSV

Title
Job Zone Two: Some Preparation Needed
Education
These occupations usually require a high school diploma.
Related Experience
Some previous work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is usually needed. For example, a teller would benefit from experience working directly with the public.
Job Training
Employees in these occupations need anywhere from a few months to one year of working with experienced employees. A recognized apprenticeship program may be associated with these occupations.
Job Zone Examples
These occupations often involve using your knowledge and skills to help others. Examples include orderlies, counter and rental clerks, customer service representatives, security guards, upholsterers, and tellers.
SVP Range
3 months to 1 year of preparation (4.0 to < 6.0)

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Training & Credentials

State training
Local training
Certifications
Apprenticeships
Have a career path or location in mind? Visit Apprenticeship.gov external site to find apprenticeship opportunities near you.

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Worker Requirements

Skills Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceSkill
69
 
Active Listening — Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
69
 
Reading Comprehension — Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
56
 
Speaking — Talking to others to convey information effectively.
53
 
Critical Thinking — Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions, or approaches to problems.
53
 
Writing — Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
50
 
Mathematics — Using mathematics to solve problems.
50
 
Monitoring — Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
50
 
Time Management — Managing one's own time and the time of others.
47
 
Judgment and Decision Making — Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
44
 
Active Learning — Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
44
 
Complex Problem Solving — Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
44
 
Social Perceptiveness — Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
41
 
Coordination — Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.
41
 
Service Orientation — Actively looking for ways to help people.
35
 
Learning Strategies — Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
31
 
Instructing — Teaching others how to do something.
31
 
Systems Analysis — Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.
28
 
Persuasion — Persuading others to change their minds or behavior.
28
 
Systems Evaluation — Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.
25
 
Management of Personnel Resources — Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
25
 
Negotiation — Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences.
16
 
Operations Monitoring — Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
16
 
Programming — Writing computer programs for various purposes.
13
 
Quality Control Analysis — Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.
10
 
Management of Financial Resources — Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures.
10
 
Operations Analysis — Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design.
6
 
Operation and Control — Controlling operations of equipment or systems.
6
 
Science — Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
3
 
Technology Design — Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs.
0
 
Equipment Maintenance — Performing routine maintenance on equipment and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed.
0
 
Equipment Selection — Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.
0
 
Installation — Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications.
0
 
Management of Material Resources — Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work.
0
 
Repairing — Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools.
0
 
Troubleshooting — Determining causes of operating errors and deciding what to do about it.

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Knowledge Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceKnowledge
78
 
Administrative — Knowledge of administrative and office procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and workplace terminology.
73
 
English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
68
 
Mathematics — Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
65
 
Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
55
 
Personnel and Human Resources — Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
53
 
Computers and Electronics — Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
48
 
Economics and Accounting — Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking, and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
40
 
Public Safety and Security — Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.
37
 
Education and Training — Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
35
 
Law and Government — Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
34
 
Administration and Management — Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
30
 
Communications and Media — Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
23
 
Psychology — Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
19
 
Sociology and Anthropology — Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures, and their history and origins.
18
 
Telecommunications — Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.
16
 
Production and Processing — Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods.
14
 
Transportation — Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including the relative costs and benefits.
11
 
Sales and Marketing — Knowledge of principles and methods for showing, promoting, and selling products or services. This includes marketing strategy and tactics, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
10
 
Philosophy and Theology — Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
9
 
Geography — Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
9
 
Therapy and Counseling — Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.
7
 
Foreign Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
7
 
Mechanical — Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
6
 
Engineering and Technology — Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
4
 
Building and Construction — Knowledge of materials, methods, and the tools involved in the construction or repair of houses, buildings, or other structures such as highways and roads.
2
 
Physics — Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub-atomic structures and processes.
1
 
Biology — Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
1
 
Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
1
 
Design — Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
1
 
Fine Arts — Knowledge of the theory and techniques required to compose, produce, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture.
1
 
History and Archeology — Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
1
 
Medicine and Dentistry — Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.
0
 
Food Production — Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.

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Education

How much education does a new hire need to perform a job in this occupation? Respondents said:

  • 39%
     
    responded: High school diploma or equivalent requiredmore info
  • 21%
     
    responded: Some college, no degree requiredmore info
  • 17%
     
    responded: Associate’s degree required

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Worker Characteristics

Abilities Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceAbility
69
 
Near Vision — The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
69
 
Oral Comprehension — The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
66
 
Oral Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
66
 
Written Comprehension — The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
66
 
Written Expression — The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
60
 
Mathematical Reasoning — The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
56
 
Information Ordering — The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
56
 
Problem Sensitivity — The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing that there is a problem.
56
 
Speech Clarity — The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
56
 
Speech Recognition — The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
53
 
Deductive Reasoning — The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
53
 
Inductive Reasoning — The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
50
 
Number Facility — The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
50
 
Perceptual Speed — The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object.
50
 
Selective Attention — The ability to concentrate on a task over a period of time without being distracted.
44
 
Category Flexibility — The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
38
 
Flexibility of Closure — The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material.
35
 
Far Vision — The ability to see details at a distance.
31
 
Finger Dexterity — The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects.
31
 
Time Sharing — The ability to shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources).
28
 
Fluency of Ideas — The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
25
 
Auditory Attention — The ability to focus on a single source of sound in the presence of other distracting sounds.
25
 
Memorization — The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.
25
 
Originality — The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
25
 
Speed of Closure — The ability to quickly make sense of, combine, and organize information into meaningful patterns.
25
 
Visualization — The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged.
19
 
Visual Color Discrimination — The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness.
16
 
Hearing Sensitivity — The ability to detect or tell the differences between sounds that vary in pitch and loudness.
16
 
Trunk Strength — The ability to use your abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without "giving out" or fatiguing.
16
 
Wrist-Finger Speed — The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists.
13
 
Arm-Hand Steadiness — The ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position.
13
 
Manual Dexterity — The ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
10
 
Control Precision — The ability to quickly and repeatedly adjust the controls of a machine or a vehicle to exact positions.
3
 
Dynamic Strength — The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue.
3
 
Multilimb Coordination — The ability to coordinate two or more limbs (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the whole body is in motion.
0
 
Depth Perception — The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from you, or to judge the distance between you and an object.
0
 
Dynamic Flexibility — The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with your body, arms, and/or legs.
0
 
Explosive Strength — The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object.
0
 
Extent Flexibility — The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.
0
 
Glare Sensitivity — The ability to see objects in the presence of a glare or bright lighting.
0
 
Gross Body Coordination — The ability to coordinate the movement of your arms, legs, and torso together when the whole body is in motion.
0
 
Gross Body Equilibrium — The ability to keep or regain your body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position.
0
 
Night Vision — The ability to see under low-light conditions.
0
 
Peripheral Vision — The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are looking ahead.
0
 
Rate Control — The ability to time your movements or the movement of a piece of equipment in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a moving object or scene.
0
 
Reaction Time — The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to a signal (sound, light, picture) when it appears.
0
 
Response Orientation — The ability to choose quickly between two or more movements in response to two or more different signals (lights, sounds, pictures). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body part.
0
 
Sound Localization — The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated.
0
 
Spatial Orientation — The ability to know your location in relation to the environment or to know where other objects are in relation to you.
0
 
Speed of Limb Movement — The ability to quickly move the arms and legs.
0
 
Stamina — The ability to exert yourself physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath.
0
 
Static Strength — The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects.

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Interests Save Table: XLSX CSV

Occupational InterestInterest
100
 
Conventional — Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
45
 
Enterprising — Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
17
 
Social — Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
11
 
Realistic — Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
0
 
Artistic — Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
0
 
Investigative — Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.

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Work Values Save Table: XLSX CSV

ExtentWork Value
67
 
Relationships — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
56
 
Support — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
39
 
Achievement — Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
39
 
Independence — Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
39
 
Working Conditions — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
33
 
Recognition — Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

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Work Styles Save Table: XLSX CSV

ImportanceWork Style
97
 
Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.
96
 
Attention to Detail — Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
93
 
Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
84
 
Cooperation — Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
82
 
Concern for Others — Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
79
 
Independence — Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
75
 
Self-Control — Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
74
 
Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
72
 
Achievement/Effort — Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
71
 
Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
70
 
Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
69
 
Analytical Thinking — Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
67
 
Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high-stress situations.
59
 
Innovation — Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
52
 
Leadership — Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
52
 
Social Orientation — Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job.

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Workforce Characteristics

Wages & Employment Trends

Median wages (2021)
$22.89 hourly, $47,610 annual
State wages
Local wages
Employment (2020)
137,300 employees
Projected growth (2020-2030)
Decline (-1% or lower)
Projected job openings (2020-2030)
11,400
State trends
Top industries (2020)

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2021 wage data external site and 2020-2030 employment projections external site. “Projected growth” represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2020-2030). “Projected job openings” represent openings due to growth and replacement.

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Job Openings on the Web

State job openings
Local job openings

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Sources of Additional Information

Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement.

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